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OVEN-HEATING  ELEMENTS.—The  ovens  of electric ranges are equipped with open or enclosed elements.  These  include  the  rod  and  coil,  suspended coil, spiral-wound, or tubular types. Ovens have two heating elements.  One is located in the upper part of the oven and the other in the lower part. Oven elements work off a thermostat to control heat temperature and a timing device for automatic shutoff, as shown in figure 7-6. TROUBLESHOOTING.—In troubleshooting, start by checking to ensure that proper voltage is going to the unit; then check each element and control device. The  heating  element,  though  ruggedly  constructed, might become open-circuited. That can be checked with an ohmmeter. Normal resistance is somewhat less than 100 ohms. If elements are opened, replacement is necessary. If the heating element checks normal but the unit does not heat up, the controls should be checked. Voltage measurement is the most reliable test for a switch. When turned off, the measurement across the switch   terminals   should   read   “FULL-LINE VOLTAGE,” 120 or 240 volts. When the switch is ON, the reading should be zero across the terminals. Any voltage reading across the terminal of a closed switch indicates  a  fault.  Replacing  a  faulty  switch  involves  the disconnection  and  replacement  of  many  wires.  A  sketch or identifying tags should be used to ensure the correct relocation of the wires. Oven thermostats control temperature and are factory-calibrated for that unit. Some units can be recalibrated   but   most   must   be   replaced.   When replacement is necessary, the exact type is preferred; however, universal type replacement is available. The Figure 7-6.—Oven-heating circuit with two heating units. manufacturer’s  instructions  that  come  with  a  thermostat will give you the exact method for installing and calibrating  the  device. Faulty wiring is the final check. Unless arcing damage is evident, test a wire by disconnecting both ends from the circuit; then check it with an ohmmeter.  A good  wire  checks  0  ohms;  a  faulty  one,  infinity Table  7-2  is  a  guide  that  should  help  you  when troubleshooting electric ranges; it lists the trouble, probable cause, and remedy. Hot-Water   Heaters A hot-water heater is nothing more than a metal water-storage  tank  with  one  or  two  electric  heating elements,  thermostatically  controlled  to  heat  water  in the tank. Some of the electrical problems you may encounter  are  as  follows: no   power,   defective thermostat, thermostat out of calibration, or a defective heater element or elements. The  hookup  for  a  hot-water  heater  will  vary depending  on  the  size  and  application  of  each  unit. Always refer to the manufacturer’s manual for wiring instructions   and   the   NEC©   for   any   special requirements. Most hot-water heaters that you will be installing will have a wiring diagram similar to the one shown in figure 7-7.   The thermostat is in series with the Figure 7-7.—Wiring connections for an electric water beater, having two heating units 7-8

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