At any Navy or advanced base, the electrical system consists of three parts: the power plant that supplies the electrical power, the distribution system that carries the electrical current from the generating station to the various buildings, and the interior wiring systems that feed the electrical power to the appliances and equipment within a building.
As defined here, interior wiring begins at the point where the distribution systems service leads are connected to the wiring from within the building and extends through each circuit of the interior wiring of the building to the last fixture installation.
In this chapter, we will discuss your responsibilities in meeting various code and specification requirements and a variety of techniques for installing, repairing, and maintaining interior wiring systems.
The National Electrical Code (NEC) is prepared and published every 3 years by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). You should use the latest publication and volume reference. The NEC is an accepted guide for the safe installation of electrical conductors and equipment. Its purpose is to safeguard personnel and buildings and their contents from hazards arising from the use of electricity. NAVFACENGCOM recognizes the NEC and uses it as its minimum standard.
How does the NEC minimize the dangers mentioned above? Briefly, the NEC provides the following:
Various methods of wiring and descriptions of materials
Techniques for wiring designs and protection
Requirements of general and special equipment
Special conditions and occupancy information
A variety of tables and examples for calculations
The NEC is a wealth of information that provides CEs with a strict to-be-observed guide that experience has shown minimizes electrical hazards to personnel and buildings and their contents.
Now, we are going to distinguish between three important electrical terms. As a CE, you will need to know the difference between the terms grounded, grounded conductor, and grounding conductor. Grounded, as defined by the NEC, means connected to the earth or to some other conducting body that serves in place of the earth. A grounded conductor is a circuit conductor that is intentionally grounded. A grounding conductor is a conductor used in connecting equipment in the circuit of a wiring system to a grounding electrode or electrodes. As a CE, you should make it a point to learn the difference between these terms. You will see them and hear them discussed throughout your career. Use the NEC, study it, and learn it. A working familiarity with this reference will prove useful to you, and, as you advance in rate, teach your junior personnel the importance of this valuable guide.
The starting point for interior wiring is the service entrance. It is connected to the service drop. The service entrance is made up of several components, but before we get into the specifics concerning the service entrance, let us look briefly at the wiring system used to supply a building.
The types of electrical systems that are to be installed are determined mostly by what the building is to be used for and the type of equipment that is to be used. Generally speaking, electrical loads are divided into four categories: two-wire, single-phase; three- wire, single-phase; three-wire, three-phase; and four- wire, three-phase.
The simplest wiring system is a two-wire, single- phase type, as shown in figure 5-1. This system is used
Figure 5-1. - Two-wire, single-phase system.Continue Reading