voltages require an increased separation of personnel
and energized circuits.
Many other safety procedures are required on the
jobtoo many to list here. The Linemans and
Cablemans Handbook, the Electrical Transmission
and Distibution Safety Manual, NAVFAC P-1060, and
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
instructions are a few references you need to read to
learn more about job safety.
POWER LINE COMPONENTS
Power line components are the different items used
to construct a power distribution line. The basic
components of a power line are poles, guys, crossarms,
insulators, and conductors.
The three types of poles used most frequently in
pole-line construction are wood, concrete, and steel.
You will find all three types of poles in the field, but
most of your work will be with the wooden type.
All wooden poles used for line work are chemically
treated to resist damage caused by insects and rotting.
Many of the older poles now in use were treated with
creosote. Most new poles are treated with less toxic
chemicals and are therefore safer to work with.
Creosote is a toxic compound that irritates
the skin and sometimes causes blistering. You
should use extra care when working around
poles treated with creosote to prevent contact
between these poles and the bare skin.
The supply of wood poles available for use in
constructing electric power lines has decreased in
recent years. Substitute materials, such as concrete,
aluminum, fiber glass and laminated and composite
wood poles, are now being used.
The classification of wooden poles is determined by
the length, circumference at the top, and circumference
measured 6 feet from the butt end. Pole sizes begin at 20
feet and are increased in 5-foot increments up to 90 feet
in length. Pole-top circumference increases 2 inches for
every class from Class 7 to Class 1. The Navy, however,
does not normally order poles smaller than Class 5.
American National Standard, ANSI 05.1, entitled
"Specifications and Dimensions for Wood Poles"
provides technical data for wood utility poles.
When constructing power lines, you will need a
means of strengthening poles and keeping them in
position. To accomplish this, you can use guys,
anchors, and braces. Anchors are buried in the ground,
and guy wires are connected to the anchors and attached
to the pole, or a push brace may be used. The guys and
braces are used to counter the horizontal strain on the
pole caused by conductors, pole-line components, and
abnormal loads, such as snow, sleet, or wind.
Anchors are designed to meet specific soil
conditions. You must know the type of soil before you
can select a certain type of anchor. Anchors come in
many forms and have different methods of installation.
Figure 4-1 shows the most common types of anchors.
The expanding anchor, the most popular type, as shown
in figure 4-1, view A, is designed to be placed in the
ground and then expanded with the aid of the tamping
bar. Once expanded, the anchor is secure and strong
enough to secure the guy. Figure 4-1, view B, shows a
plate of a never-creep anchor, and view C shows a screw
anchor that is installed using an earth auger. These three
types of anchors are manufactured and are commonly
used because of their ease of installation.
Another type of anchor that is shown in figure 4-1,
view D, is called a deadman. This anchor is made of a 6-
to 8-foot-long piece of treated power pole and an anchor
rod. It is installed 6 feet deep in loose or sandy type of
soil, with an angle of pull for the guy wire and rod
assembly equal to 45 degrees. The deadman is not
widely used today because of the time and effort
required to place it.
The anchor rod serves as the connecting link
between the anchor and the guy cable. The rod must