Indirect labor includes labor required to support
construction operations but does not. in itself. produce
an end product.
Manpower estimates consist of a listing of the
number of direct labor man-days required to complete
the various activities of a specific project. These
estimates may show only the man-days for each
activity or they may be in sufficient detail to list the
number of man-days for each rating.
Master activities consist of a breakdown of a
complete project in sufficient detail to provide a
comprehensive description of the project.
Material estimates consist of a listing and
description of the various materials and the quantities
required to construct a given project. Information for
preparing material estimates is obtained from the
activity estimates. drawings, and specifications.
Planning is the process of determining require-
ments and devising and developing methods and a
scheme of action for construction of a project. Good
construction planning is a combination of various
elements: the activity, material, equipment, and
manpower estimates: project layout; project location;
material delivery and storage; work schedules; quality
control; special tools required; environmental
protection: safety; and progress control. All of these
elements depend upon each other. They must be taken
into account in any well-planned project.
Preliminary estimates are made from limited
information. such as the general description of projects
or preliminary, plans and specifications having little or
no detail. Preliminary estimates are prepared to
establish costs for the budget and to program general
Scheduling is the process of determining when an
action must be taken and when materials, equipment,
and manpower will be required. It shows the sequence,
the time for starting, the time required for perfor-
mance. and the time for completion.
Specificationsare written information about how a
building or project is to be built. They are prepared
under the direction of the architect and engineer. The
type and quality, of materials, workmanship, finish.
and final appearance are spelled out. The written
specifications, along with the drawings. should give all
the information needed to complete any project.
Specifications control the actions and performance of
all parties who are working on or supplying material to
a construction project. Specifications may be only a
few pages long and give general instructions and
specific information on materials. Short specifications
are common in small construction jobs. In heavy
construction. however. specifications may run
hundreds of pages. Unless you understand how the
various parts of he specifications interrelate. the sheer
mass of the written material can be confusing.
Specifications are composed of three major parts:
Bid and contract forms
As an electrician, you will be working with
specifications that deal with the technical areas related
to your job. You will be responsible for the general and
supplemental specifications. special conditions. and
addenda or changes to conditions that may affect you.
The technical specifications spell out exactly what
material is to be used. what standards are to be met. and
what work is to be done in all areas ofconstruction. The
Construction Specification Institute (CSI) has
developed a standard format that is widely followed to
develop complete specifications. Bidding and contract
requirements are covered in Division 0. Technical
specifications are covered in Divisions 1 through 16.
Division 17, expeditionary structures, was established
specifically by, NAVFAC. As you can see from table
2-1, the specifications are arranged in the sequence in
which the project will progress. starting with bidding
and contract requirements.
The main basis for defining the required activities,
measuring the quantities of material, and making
accurate estimates is the information contained in con-
struction drawings. You should read all notes and
references carefully and examine all details and refer-
ence drawings thoroughly. You should check the ori-
entation of sectional views carefully. Verify the
Revision section near the title block to check whether
the indicated changes were in fact made in the drawing
itself. When inconsistencies are found between draw-
ings and specifications. the specifications should take
Drawings are generally categorized according to
their intended purposes: preliminary drawings. pre-
sentation drawings. working drawings. and shop