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Figure  8-30.-Names  of  brick  surfaces. BRICK  MASONRY LEARNING  OBJECTIVE:  Upon  completing this section, you should be able to explain the elements of brick masonry. Brick masonry is construction in which uniform units (“bricks”), small enough to be placed with one hand, are laid in courses with mortar joints to form walls.  Bricks  are  kiln  baked  from  various  clay  and shale   mixtures. The  chemical  and  physical characteristics of the ingredients vary considerably. These   characteristics   and   the   kiln   temperatures combine to produce brick in a variety of colors and harnesses. In some regions, individual pits yield clay or shale which, when ground and moistened, can be formed  and  baked  into  durable  brick.  In  other regions,  clay  or  shale  from  several  pits  must  be mixed. BRICK   TERMINOLOGY Standard  U.S.  bricks  are  2  1/4-by-3  3/4-by-8 inches nominal size. They may have three core holes or ten core holes. Modular U.S. bricks are 2 1/4-by-3 5/8-by-7 5/8 inches nominal size. They usually have three  core  holes.  English  bricks  are  3-by-4  1/2-by-9 inches;  Roman  bricks  are  1  1/2-by-4-by-12  inches; and  Norman  bricks  are  2  3/4-by-4-by-12  inches nominal  size.  Actual  brick  dimensions  are  smaller, usually by an amount equal to a mortar joint width. Bricks weigh from 100 to 150 pounds per cubic foot, depending on the ingredients and duration of firing. Fired brick is heavier than under-burned brick. The six surfaces of a brick are called cull, beds, side, end, and face, as shown in figure 8-30. Occasionally  you  will  have  to  cut  brick  into various shapes to fill in spaces at corners and other locations where a full brick does not fit. Figure 8-31 shows  the  more  common  cut  shapes:  half  or  bat, three-quarter closure, quarter closure, king closure, queen  closure,  and  split. TYPES OF BRICKS Brick  masonry  units  may  be  solid,  hollow,  or architectural terra cotta. All types can serve a struc- tural function, a decorative function, or a combination of  both.  The  various  types  differ  in  their  formation and   composition. Building  brick,  also  called  common,  hard,  or kiln-run brick, is made from ordinary clay or shale and  is  fired  in  kilns.  These  bricks  have  no  special shoring, markings, surface texture, or color. Because building  bricks  are  generally  used  as  the  backing courses in either solid or cavity brick walls, the harder and more durable types are preferred. Face  brick  is  better  quality  and  has  better durability  and  appearance  than  building  brick. Because of this, face bricks are used in exposed wall faces. The most common face brick colors are various shades  of  brown,  red,  gray,  yellow,  and  white. Clinker brick is over burned in the kiln. Clinker bricks  are  usually  rough,  hard,  durable,  and sometimes irregular in shape. Pressed  brick  is  made  by  a  dry-press  process rather than by kiln firing. Pressed bricks have regular smooth   faces,   sharp   edges,   and   perfectly   square corners. Ordinarily, they are used like face brick. Glazed brick has one surface coated with a white or colored ceramic glazing. The glazing forms when mineral  ingredients  fuse  together  in  a  glass  like coating during burning. Glazed bricks are particularly Figure  8-31.-Common  cut  brick  shapes. 8-25

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