LEVELING AND GRADING
This chapter describes the common types of
leveling instruments. It also describes their principles,
uses, procedures of establishing elevations, and
techniques of laying outbuilding lines. As a Builder,
you will find the information especially useful in
performing such duties as setting up a level, reading a
leveling rod, interpreting and setting grade stakes, and
setting batterboards. Also included in this chapter are
practices and measures that help prevent slides and
cave-ins at excavation sites, and the procedures for
computing volume of land mass.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Upon completing
this section, you should be able to describe the
types of leveling instruments and their uses.
The engineers level, often referred to as the
dumpy level, is the instrument most commonly
used to attain the level line of sight required for
differential leveling (defined later). The dumpy level
and the self-leveling level can be mounted for use on
a tripod, usually with adjustable legs (figure 5-1).