Other cutting tools are toothing irons and
auxiliary aids, such as calipers, dividers, and
Turning gouges are used chiefly to rough out
nearly all shapes in spindle turning. The gouge sizes
vary from 1/8 to 2 or more inches, with 1/4-, 3/4-, and
1-inch sizes being most common.
Skew chisels are used for smoothing cuts to finish
a surface, turning beads, trimming ends or shoulders,
and for making V-cuts. They are made in sizes from
1/8 to 2 1/2 inches in width and in right-handed and
Parting tools are used to cut recesses or grooves
with straight sides and a flat bottom, and also to cut
off finished work from the faceplate. These tools are
available in sizes ranging from 1/8 to 3/4 inch.
Scraping tools of various shapes are used for the
most accurate turning work, especially for most
faceplate turning. A few of the more common] y used
shapes are illustrated in views D, E, and F of
figure 3-6. The chisels shown in views B, E, and F
are actually old jointer blades that have been ground
to the required shape; the wood handles for these
homemade chisels are not shown in the illustration.
A toothing iron (figure 3-7) is basically a
square-nose turning chisel with a series of parallel
grooves cut into the top surface of the iron. These
turning tools we used for rough turning of segment
work mounted on the face plate. The points of the
toothing iron created by the parallel grooves serve as
a series of spear point chisels (detail A); therefore, the
tool is not likely to catch and dig into the work like a
square-nose turning chisel. The toothing iron is made
with course, medium, and fine parallel grooves and
varies from 1/2 to 2 inches in width.
Lathe turning can be extremely dangerous. You
therefore must use particular care in this work.
Observe the following safety precautions:
When starting the lathe motor, stand to one
side. This helps you avoid the hazard of flying
debris in the event of defective material.
Figure 3-7.Toothing iron lathe tool.
The tool rest must be used when milling stock.
Adjust and set the compound or tool rest for the
start of the cut before turning the switch on.
Take very light cuts, especially when using
Never attempt to
surfaces while the
use calipers on interrupted
work is in motion.
The jointer is a machine for power planing stock
on faces, edges, and ends. The planing is done by a
revolving butterhead equipped with two or more
knives, as shown in figure 3-8. Tightening the set
screws forces the throat piece against the knife for
holding the knife in position. Loosening the set
screws releases the knife for removal. The size of a
jointer is designated by the width, in inches, of the
butterhead; sizes range from 4 to 36 inches. A 6-inch
jointer is shown in figure 3-9.
The principle on which the jointer functions is
illustrated in figure 3-10. The table consists of two
parts on either side of the butterhead. The stock is
started on the infeed table and fed past the butterhead
onto the outfeed table. The surface of the outfeed
table must be exactly level with the highest point
reached by the knife edges. The surface of the infeed
table is depressed below the surface of the outfeed
Figure 3-8.Four-knife butterhead for a jointer.