Table 3-14.-Carriage Bolt Sizes
be driven. They are threaded only part of the way up the shaft. Usually, the threads are two to four times the diameter of the bolt in length. In each type of carriage bolt, the upper part of the shank, immediately below the head, is designed to grip the material in which the bolt is inserted and keep the bolt from turning when a nut is tightened down on it or removed. The finned type is designed with two or more fins extending from the head to the shank. The ribbed type is designed with longitudinal ribs, splines, or serrations on all or part of a shoulder located immediately beneath the head. Holes bored to receive carriage bolts are bored to be a tight fit for the body of the bolt and counterbored to permit the head of the bolt to fit flush with, or below the surface of, the material being fastened. The bolt is then driven through the hole with a hammer. Carriage bolts are chiefly for wood-to-wood application, but they can also be used for wood-to-metal applications. If used for wood-to-metal application, the head should be fitted to the wood item. Metal surfaces are sometimes predrilled and countersunk to permit the use of carriage bolts metal to metal. Carriage bolts can be obtained from 1/4 inch to 1 inch in diameter and from 3/4 inch to 20 inches long (table 3-14). A common flat washer should be used with carriage bolts between the nut and the surface.
Machine bolts (figure 3-82) are made with cut national fine and national coarse threads extending in length from twice the diameter of the bolt plus 1/4 inch (for bolts less than 6 inches in length) to twice the diameter of the bolt plus 1/2 inch (for bolts over 6 inches in length). They are precision made and generally applied metal to metal where close tolerance is desirable. The head may be square, hexagonal, rounded, or flat countersunk. The nut usually corresponds in shape to the head of the bolt with which it is used. Machine bolts are externally driven only. Selection of the proper machine bolt is made on the basis of head style, length, diameter, number of threads per inch, and coarseness of thread. The hole through which the bolt is to pass is bored to the same diameter as the bolt. Machine bolts are made in diameters from 1/4 inch to 3 inches and may be obtained in any length desired (table 3- 15).
Table 3-15.-Machine Bolt SizesContinue Reading