concrete-mix design according to NAVFAC specifications.

In table 6-3, one of the formulas for 3,000 psi concrete is 5.80 bags of cement per cubic yard, 233 pounds of sand (per bag of cement), 297 pounds of coarse aggregate (per bag of cement), and a water-cement ratio of 6.75 gallons of water to each bag of cement. These proportions are based on the assumption that the inert ingredients are in a saturated surface-dry condition, meaning that they contain all the water they are capable of absorbing, but no additional free water over and above this amount.

We need to point out that a saturated surface-dry condition almost never exists in the field. The amount of free water in the coarse aggregate is usually small enough to be ignored, but the ingredient proportions set forth in the specs must almost always be adjusted to allow for the existence of free water in the fine aggregate. Furthermore, since free water in the fine aggregate increases its measured volume or weight over that of the sand itself, the specified volume or weight of sand must be increased to offset the volume or weight of the water in the sand. Finally, the number of gallons of water used per sack of cement must be reduced to allow for the free water in the sand. The amount of water actually added at the mixer must be the specified amount per sack, less the amount of free water that is already in the ingredients in the mixer.

Except as otherwise specified in the project specifications, concrete is proportioned by weighing and must conform to NAVFAC specifications. (See table 6-3 for normal concrete.)

When tables, such as table 6-3, are not available for determining quantities of material required for 1 cubic yard of concrete, a rule of thumb, known as rule 41 or 42, may be used for a rough estimation. According to this rule, it takes either 41 or 42 cubic feet of the combined dry amounts of cement, sand, and aggregates to produce 1 cubic yard of mixed concrete. Rule 41 is used to calculate the quantities of material for concrete when the size of the coarse aggregate is not over 1 inch. Rule 42 is used when the size of the coarse aggregate is not over 2 1/2 inches. Here is how it works.

As we mentioned earlier, a bag of cement contains 94 pounds by weight, or about 1 cubic foot by loose volume. A batch formula is usually based on the number of bags of cement used in the mixing machine.

For estimating the amount of dry materials needed to mix 1 cubic yard of concrete, rules 41 and 42 work in the same manner. The decision on which rule to use depends upon the size of the aggregate. Let's say your specifications call for a 1:2:4 mix with 2-inch coarse aggregates, which means you use rule 42, First, add 1:2:4, which gives you 7. Then compute your material requirements as follows:

42 + 7 = 6 bags, or 6 cu ft of cement;

6x2 = 12 cu ft of sand;

6x4 = 24 cu ft of coarse aggregates.

Adding your total dry materials, 6 + 12 + 24= 42, so your calculations are correct.

Frequently, you will have to convert volumes in cubic feet to weights in pounds. In converting, multiply the required cubic feet of cement by 94 since 1 cubic foot, or 1 standard bag of cement, weighs 94 pounds. When using rule 41 for coarse aggregates, multiply the quantity of coarse gravel in cubic feet by 105 since the average weight of dry-compacted fine aggregate or gravel is 105 pounds per cubic feet. By rule 42, however, multiply the cubic feet of rock (1-inch-size coarse aggregate) by 100 since the average dry-compacted weight of this rock is 100 pounds per cubic foot.

A handling-loss factor is added in ordering materials for jobs. An additional 5 percent of materials is added for jobs requiring 200 or more cubic yards of concrete, and 10 percent is added for smaller jobs. This loss factor is based on material estimates after the requirements have been calculated. Additional loss factors may be added where conditions indicate the necessity for excessive handling of materials before batching.

The water-measuring controls on a machine concrete mixer are described later in this chapter. Water measurement for hand mixing can be done with a 14-quart bucket, marked off on the inside in gallons, half-gallons, and quarter-gallons.

Never add water to the mix without carefully measuring the water, and always remember that the amount of water actually placed in the mix varies according to the amount of free water that is already in the aggregate. This means that if the aggregate is

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