straightens out any warp a piece may have; a piece
that goes into the surfacer warped will come out still
warped. This is not a defect in the machine; the
surfacer is designed for surfacing only, not for truing
warped stock. If true plane surfaces are desired, one
face of the stock (the face that goes down in the
surfacer) must be trued on the jointer before the piece
is feed through the surfacer. If the face that goes
down in the surfacer is true, the surfacer will plane
the other face true.
Observe the following safety precautions when
operating a surfacer:
The cutting head should be covered by metal
Feed rolls should be guarded by a hood or a
Never force wood through the machine.
If a piece of wood gets stuck, turn off the
surfacer and lower the feed bed.
Figure 3-12.Three-wing cutter for a shaper.
The shaper is designed primarily for edging
curved stock and for cutting ornamental edges, as on
moldings. It can also be used for rabbeting, grooving,
fluting, and beading.
The flat cutter on a shaper is mounted on a
vertical spindle and held in place by a hexagonal
spindle nut. A grooved collar is placed below and
above the cutter to receive the edges of the knives.
Ball bearing collars are available for use as guides on
irregular work where the fence is not used. The part
of the edge that is to remain uncut runs against a ball
bearing collar underneath the cutter, as shown in the
bottom view of figure 3-12. A three-wing cutter (top
view of figure 3-12) fits over the spindle. Cutters
come with cutting edges in a great variety of shapes.
For shaping the side edges on a rectangular
piece, a light-duty shaper has an adjustable fence,
like the one shown on the shaper in figure 3-13. For
shaping the end edges on a rectangular piece, a
machine of this type has a sliding fence similar to the
cutoff gauge on a circular saw. The sliding fence
slides in the groove shown in the table top.
On larger machines, the fence consists of a
board straightedge, clamped to the table with a hand
Figure 3-13.Light-duty shaper with adjustable