in the triangle indicates the hues that result when
colors are mixed.
A Equal proportions of red and blue produce pur-
B Equal proportions of red and yellow produce
C Equal proportions of blue and yellow produce
D Three parts of red to one part of blue produce
E Three parts of red to one part of yellow produce
F Three parts of blue to one part of red produce
G Three parts of yellow to one part of red produce
H Three parts of blue to one part of yellow pro-
duce bluish green.
I Three parts of yellow to one part of blue produce
Hues are known as chromatic colors, whereas
black, white, and gray are achromatic (neutral colors).
Gray can be produced by mixing black and white in
When received, paints should be ready for
application by brush or roller. Thinner can be added
for either method of application, but the supervisor or
inspector must give prior approval. Thinning is often
required for spray application. Unnecessary or
excessive thinning causes an inadequate thickness of
the applied coating and adversely affects coating
longevity and protective qualities. When necessary,
thinning is done by competent personnel using only
the thinning agents named by the specifications or
label instructions. Thinning is not done to make it
easier to brush or roll cold paint materials. They
should be preconditioned (warmed) to bring them up
to 65°F to 85°F.
Normally, paint in freshly opened containers does
not require straining. But in cases where lumps, color
flecks, or foreign matter are evident, paints should be
strained after mixing. When paint is to be sprayed, it
must be strained to avoid clogging the spray gun.
Skins should be removed from the paint before
mixing. If necessary, the next step is thinning. Finally,
the paint is strained through a fine sieve or commercial
Try not to tint paint. This will reduce waste and
eliminate the problem of matching special colors at a
later date. Tinting also affects the properties of the
paint, often reducing performances to some extent.
One exception is the tinting of an intermediate coat to
differentiate between that coat and a topcoat; this
helps assure you dont miss any areas. In this case, use
only colorants of known compatibility. Try not to add
more than 4 ounces of tint per gallon of paint. If more
is added, the paint may not dry well or otherwise
When necessary, tinting should be done in the
paint shop by experienced personnel. The paint must
be at application viscosity before tinting. Colorants
must be compatible, fresh, and fluid to mix readily.
Mechanical agitation helps distribute the colorants
uniformly throughout the paint.
The common methods of applying paint are
brushing, rolling, and spraying. The choice of method
is based on several factors, such as speed of
application, environment, type and amount of surface,
type of coating to be applied, desired appearance of
finish, and training and experience of painters.
Brushing is the slowest method, rolling is much faster,
and spraying is usually the fastest by far. Brushing is
ideal for small surfaces and odd shapes or for cutting
in corners and edges. Rolling and spraying are
efficient on large, flat surfaces. Spraying can also be
used for round or irregular shapes.
Local surroundings may prohibit the spraying of
paint because of fire hazards or potential damage from
over-spraying (accidentally getting paint on adjacent
surfaces). When necessary, adjacent areas not to be
coated must be covered when spraying is performed.
This results in loss of time and, if extensive, may offset
the speed advantage of spraying.
Brushing may leave brush marks after the paint is
dry. Rolling leaves a stippled effect. Spraying yields
the smoothest finish, if done properly. Lacquer
products, such as vinyls, dry rapidly and should be
sprayed. Applying them by brush or roller may be
difficult, especially in warm weather or outdoors on