Quantcast Column Reinforcement

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designated  in  pounds  per  one  hundred  square  feet  of fabric  (table  3-9).  Five  feet,  six  feet,  seven  feet,  and seven feet six inches are the standard widths available for rolls, while the standard panel widths and lengths are seven feet by twenty feet and seven feet six inches by twenty feet. COLUMN  REINFORCEMENT A column is a slender, vertical member that carries a  superimposed  load.  Concrete  columns,  especially those  subjected  to  bending  stresses,  must  always  be reinforced  with  steel.  A  PIER  or  PEDESTAL  is  a compressive member that is short (usually the height is less than three times the least lateral dimension) in relation   to   its   cross-sectional   area   and   carries   no Figure  3-10.—Reinforced  concrete  columns. bending stress. A bearing wall could be classified as a continuous pier. In concrete columns, vertical reinforcement is the principal  reinforcement.  However,  a  loaded  column shortens  vertically  and  expands  laterally;  hence, lateral  reinforcements  in  the  form  of  lateral  ties  are used to restrain the expansion. Columns reinforced in this  manner  are  called  tied  columns  (fig.  3-10,  view A).  If  the  restraining  reinforcement  is  a  continuous winding spiral that encircles the core and longitudinal steel, the column is called a spiral column (fig. 3-10, view B). BEAM  REINFORCEMENT Beams  are  the  principal  load-carrying  horizontal members.  They  take  the  load  directly  from  the  floor and carry it to the columns. Concrete beams can either be  cast  in  place  or  precast  and  transported  to  the jobsite.  Figure  3-11  shows  several  common  types  of beam   reinforcing   steel   shapes.   Both   straight   and bent-up principal reinforcing bars are needed to resist the  bending  tension  in  the  bottom  over  the  central portion of the span. Fewer bars are necessary on the bottom  near  the  ends  of  the  span  where  the  bending moment is small. For this reason, some bars may be bent so that the inclined portion can be used to resist diagonal tension. The reinforcing bars of continuous beams   are   continued   across   the   supports   to   resist tension in the top in that area. WALL  REINFORCEMENT The   placement   of   steel   reinforcement   in load-bearing walls is the same as for columns, except that the steel is erected in place and not preassembled. Horizontal steel is tied to vertical steel at least three times in any bar length. The wood block is removed figure  3-11.—Typical  shapes  of  reinforcing  steel. 3-21



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