continued until all stains and dirt are removed. The
facing should then be rinsed thoroughly with clean
water. Do not permit the use of wire brushes, abrasives,
or metal tools because they may damage the surface, the
color, the edges, and the joints.
Concrete floor finishes may be either integral with
or placed separately from the structural slab and may
have coloring pigment or hardening agents
incorporated. You must be sure that materials and
workmanship conform to the requirements specified for
the type required in the project specifications. You
must make sure that color pigment or integral hardener
is added following the specifications or approved
If the finish is to be placed integrally, you must see
that it is applied within the specified time limit, and to
do this, you must ascertain whether the number of
qualified finishers is adequate to keep pace with the rate
of placing of the floor slab or that this rate is decreased.
When a separate finish is required, you must ensure
that the surface of the slab is well-roughened,
thoroughly cleaned of all loose material, and brushed
with neat cement grout immediately before the finish is
placed. Furthermore, be sure that the finishing concrete
is placed at the driest practicable consistency to
minimize shrinkage; that the dusting on of cement to
absorb excess water is not permitted; and that the
surface is floated to a true, even surface, level or slightly
pitched as specified, and is troweled smooth without
voids, exposed aggregate, or other visual defects.
However, you should ensure that troweling is not
continued to excess because checking, crazing, and
excessive dusting of the finished floor may result.
Make certain that the surface is cured as directed
and for the time specified. Then also make certain that
surface hardening treatments, if required, are applied
after the surface is thoroughly cured, using approved
chemicals of the type and in the amounts specified.
Painting of concrete, stucco, and similar surfaces is
done primarily for decorative purposes or for
dampproofing walls. Paints usually are of white
portland cement base with color but may be of an oil
base. In an inspection of painting, you must be sure that
the materials conform to the project specification or the
referenced standard specifications. You must also
determine whether surfaces are clean and free from dust,
efflorescence, and other contamination and whether
they are adequately cured. When portland cement paint
is used, be certain that the surface is thoroughly wetted.
If oil-based paints are used, ensure that the surface is
thoroughly cured, pretreated as specified, and
Steel construction is used principally on shop
buildings requiring relatively long-span construction
and on multistory buildings for comparatively light
occupancy. In most cases, factory inspection of
material, fabrication, and shop assembly will have been
made. The inspector must make certain that the
steelwork as delivered is correctly identified, sorted,
handled, and stored.
Steel Floor Framing
In the construction industry today, steel-framed
systems continue to gain popularity. The material used
most often is light-gauge galvanized steel. The steel
floor framing methods are similar to the wood-framed
systems and the two are interchangeable.
As the inspector, you must give special attention to
the alignment and plumbing of columns and posts.
Joists, beams (usually wide-flanged), and girders must
be level and set at the prescribed distance below the
finished floor. You must ensure that all steel is held and
adequately braced by clips, brackets, ties, and anchors
until the steel can be riveted or welded. The inspector
must be certain that adequate erection bolts are used to
hold all joining surfaces tightly together at joints and to
hold the assembled steel in alignment. You must also
make sure that mismatched holes are drilled or reamed
and not drifted.
On welded work, the inspector must ensure the
That suitable electrodes are used, as specified.
That all base metal at welds is cleaned, brought
into correct position, and clamped or backed up as
That welds are made in the approved sequence
to minimize internal stresses and distortion.
That welds are of satisfactory quality, length, and
That the parent metal is not damaged.