7. Dress the new portion to the level of the adjacent
floor by sanding both areas to a continuous, smooth
8. Dry sweep the area to remove all particles of
9. On open-grained woods, brush on a paste filler.
After the filler has partially dried, rub it into the pores
of the wood with a circular motion. Wipe the surface
lightly to remove any surplus filler. Inadequate filling
is indicated by pockmarks and results from wiping off
too much of the filler or from unusual absorption by the
wood. Eliminate such deficiencies by repeating the filler
10. Seal and wax the floor (two coats).
Concrete floors should be inspected annually for
dusting, spalling, cracking, and settling. Concrete
floors of proper composition, installation, and curing
require comparatively little maintenance unless they
are exposed to conditions, such as the following:
Severe abrasion and heavy vehicle loads from
The deteriorating effect of grease, oils, and food
acids encountered in galleys, sculleries, and similar
To caustic soaps and solutions.
The corrosive agents in highly acid or alkaline
liquids attack concrete floors and cause spalling and
pitting. Where trucking is done over concrete floors,
such as warehouses, trucks should be fitted with
wide-faced wheels; if vehicle abrasion and shock
continue to raise maintenance demands, the
application of a heavy-duty topping to the concrete
should be considered.
Do NOT paint concrete floors for
functional requirements, such as marking
safety lanes or similar areas. Painting for
appearance is unjustified and impractical;
traffic areas on painted floors will wear first,
making the floor unsightly and presenting a
difficult cleaning problem.
One of the more common problem areas with
concrete floors is the development of unsightly cracks.
Cracks in concrete floors maybe caused by shrinkage,
temperature changes, settlement, or lack of rigidity of
supporting beams or other structural members. When
such movements are recurrent and can be eliminated
only by major structural changes, little can be done
except to keep the cracks filled with a mastic material.
In many cases comparatively small cracks may be
filled with varnish or resin. Although the cracks will
remain visible, they will not leak or gather dirt. When
the cause of larger cracks has been determined and
corrective measures taken to eliminate further
cracking, the cracks can be permanently repaired by
filling them with nonshrinking cement mortar.
Patching will not permanently correct cracks in
slabs on grade caused by vertical movement resulting
from exceeding the design load of the slab, inadequacy
of the base, or insufficient bearing capacity of the soil.
Slab failure under these circumstances can be
corrected only by a major maintenance operation, such
as mud-jacking. The procedures applicable to the
repair of concrete floors are covered in detail in the
section of this chapter that deals with the maintenance
and repair of waterfront structures.
Terrazzo floors should be inspected annually for
loose or broken segments and damage from improper
cleaning. Terrazzo appears to be dense and very hard,
but the cement is sensitive to harsh soaps and cleaners,
which can cause pitting, roughen the surface, and
make the floor permanently susceptible to dusting and
dirt trapping. Repairs to a terrazzo floor should be
made according to the specification for new floors.
Only floor specialists who are capable of the class of
workmanship necessary should be entrusted with the
Clay Tile Floors
Clay tile floors should be inspected annually for
missing loose, or broken tiles; open joints; and
damage from improper cleaning. If floor damage
requires replacement of broken or badly stained tiles
or resetting loose tiles, the steps for the procedure are
1. Remove the damaged or loose tiles.