after the specified curing period without disturbing the
forms under the soffits of beams and girders. You
should never permit the removal of soffit forms and
supports and reshoring in advance of the time specified.
Furthermore, make certain that all forms are accurately
and adequately constructed, are adjusted to exact grade,
are lined with absorptive lining if specified, and are
oiled or otherwise treated as indicated. Take special
care to secure clean, true surfaces with straight edges
and uniform chamfer strips if the underside of the
structural floor will be exposed in the finished work.
You must check the work to make sure that all inserts,
hangers, anchors, sleeves, and other fittings are
provided as required and are accurately located.
You must be sure that curing is performed as shown
in the project specifications and that forms and form
supports are left in place for the minimum length of time
specified for slabs, beam and girder sides, and beam and
girder soffits. In addition, you must note particularly
concrete that may have been frozen and report the
circumstances and conditions to the proper authority.
Concrete framing of buildings generally consists of
columns, girders, beams, and slabs. Slab construction
consists of columns, capitals, plinths, and slabs with
girders and beams used only to frame around openings
and to support spandrel walls (area of wall between the
header of one window and the sill of the window above).
On building construction, you must be sure that all
wall ties, anchors, inserts, and other appliances for
fastening are installed in the forms in the exact locations
needed and that all the openings for pipes, ducts, vents,
and other purposes are formed in the correct locations.
A thorough check must be made before permission is
given to start concreting. This action ensures that no
item has been overlooked.
On building work, pay special attention to the
accuracy of alignment, the trueness of exposed surfaces,
and the finish. You must ensure that full compensation
is made for the change of floor levels caused by the
shrinkage of columns. You must give close attention to
the location of construction joints and expansion joints,
if required. You must make sure that slab forms are kept
in position for the full period specified, that forms under
beam and girder soffits are kept in place for the
additional period required, and that all concrete is cured
in the proper manner for the full period prescribed.
Concrete masonry units (CMUs) are made with
stone, gravel, shale, slag, or cinders as the coarse
aggregate. Units usually are made with nominal widths
of 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 inches. Walls and webs usually
are 2 inches in nominal thickness, but actual thicknesses
may run one-fourth to three-eighths inch less. Units are
made with 2, 3, 4, and 6 cores. They are also
manufactured in half units and in special units, such as
jamb blocks, end blocks, headers, and double-corner
In construction involving the use of concrete block,
check all material for damage, imperfections, stains,
color, size, and marking and make certain that only
material conforming fully with the requirements is used
in the work. You should also verify the course heights,
bond, color pattern, and similar basic requirements.
You must make sure that all masonry units are
handled carefully at all stages of the work to prevent
damage and see to it that scaffolds and floors are not
overloaded by stacking them too heavily.
You must determine that joints conform to the
specifications in materials, type, pointing, and finish.
To assure sound watertight construction, you must
ensure that joints are:
Completely filled for their entire length and
depth and are free of voids.
Correctly struck without excessive troweling and
that the horizontal joints are truly level and that the
vertical joints are broken, staggered, or patterned as
specified or shown.
When inspecting, you must determine that all joints
are tooled to the specified form, if indicated. Where
pointing is specified, you must ensure that the mortar
joints are raked out to the specified depth, saturated with
clean water, refilled solidly with mortar, and tooled.
You should also require that all surplus mortar and
stains be removed as the work progresses. You should
ensure that horizontal or bed joints are finished first and
then the vertical joints.
In addition, make sure that the exposed surfaces of
masonry units are washed with water and brushed with
a stiff brush until all mortar stains have been removed.
A weak solution of muriatic acid may be used for
stubborn stains, but care should be exercised to require
thorough flushing with clean water. Finished terra cotta
facing should be cleaned with a stiff brush, using soap
powder boiled in water. The brushing should be