ELEVATIONS are orthographic projections,
showing the finished interior and exterior appearance
of the structure. Interior elevations are required for
important features, such as built-in cabinets and
shelves, but it is not uncommon for elevations to be
drawn for all interior walls in each room of a building.
Cabinet elevations show the cabinet lengths and
heights, distance between base cabinets and wall
cabinets, shelf arrangements, doors and direction of
door swings, and materials used. Interior wall
elevations show wall lengths, finished floor-to-ceiling
heights, doors, windows, other openings, and the types
of finish materials used.
Exterior elevations show the types of materials
used on the exterior, the finished grade around the
structure, the roof slope, the basement or foundation
walls, footings, and all of the vertical dimensions.
Basically, the following four elevations are
needed in a set of drawings to complete the exterior
description: the front, the rear, and two sides of a
structure, as they would appear projected on vertical
planes. A typical elevation is drawn at the same scale
as the floor plan, either 1/4 in. = 1 ft or 1/8 in. = 1 ft;
however, occasionally a smaller scale may be used
because of space limitations, or a larger scale maybe
used to show more detail.
Several methods are used to identify each
elevation, as it relates to the floor plan. The method
Seabees most commonly use is labeling the elevations
with the same terminology used in multiview and
orthographic projection; that is, FRONT, REAR,
RIGHT-SIDE, and LEFT-SIDE ELEVATIONS or
sometimes NORTH, SOUTH, EAST, and WEST.
The STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS (usually
identified with the designating letter S on the title
block) consist of all of the drawings that describe the
structural members of the building and their
relationship to each other. A set of structural drawings
includes foundation plans and details, framing plans
and details, wall sections, column and beam details,
and other plans, sections, details, and schedules
necessary to describe the structural components of the
building or structure. The general notes in the
structural drawings should also include, when
applicable, roof, floor, wind, seismic, and other loads,
allowable soil pressure or pile-bearing capacity, and
allowable stresses of all material used in the design.
A FOUNDATION PLAN is a top view of the
footings or foundation walls, showing their area and
their location by distances between centerlines and by
distances from reference lines or boundary lines.
Actually, it is a horizontal section view cut through the
walls of the foundation showing beams, girders, piers
or columns, and openings, along with dimensions and
Primarily the building crew uses the foundation
plan to construct the foundation of the proposed
structure. In most Seabee construction, foundations
are built with concrete-masonry units (CMU) or
cast-in-place concrete. Figure 2-7 shows a plan view
of a 20 x 48 PEB, as it would look if projected into a
horizontal plane that passes through the structure. In
this typical drawing, notice that only the placement of
the anchor bolts are shown, along with a typical
detailed drawing of the footing, the column, and the
The FRAMING PLANS show the size, the
number, and the location of the structural members
constituting the building framework. Separate
framing plans are drawn for the floors and roofs.
Occasionally, the Draftsman will draw a wall framing
plan; however, wall framing plans are generally
viewed in the sectional views or detail drawings.
The FLOOR FRAMING PLAN must specify the
sizes and spacing of joists, girders, and columns used
to support the floor. Detail drawings must be added, if
necessary, to show the methods of anchoring joists and
girders to the columns and foundation walls or
The floor framing plan is basically a plan view,
showing the layout of the girders and joists. Figure 2-8
shows the manner of presenting floor framing plans.
The unbroken double-line symbol indicates joists.
Joist symbols are drawn in the position they will
occupy in the completed building. Double framing
around openings and beneath bathroom fixtures is
shown where used. Bridging is also shown by a
double-line symbol that runs perpendicularly to the
joist. In figure 2-8, the number of rows of cross
bridging is controlled by the span of the joist; place
the rows no more than 8 feet apart. Hence a 14-foot