Figure 3-21. - Layout of prefab yard.
and top with a thin coat of mortar that is finished flush with the casting surface.
It is important to remember that any imperfections in the surface of the casting slab will show up on the cast panels. When finishing the casting slab, you must ensure there is a flat, level, and smooth surface without humps, dips, cracks, or gouges. If possible, cure the casting surface, keeping it covered with water (pending). However, if a curing compound or surface hardener is used, make sure it will not conflict with the later use of bond-breaking agents.
FORMS. - The material most commonly used for edge forms is 2 by lumber. The lumber must be occasionally replaced, but the steel or aluminum angles and channels may be reused many times. The tops of the forms must be in the same plane so that they may be used for screeds. They must also be well-braced to remain in good alignment.
Edge forms should have holes in them for rebar or for expansion/contraction dowels to protrude. These holes should be one fourth of an inch larger in diameter than the bars. At times, the forms are spliced at the line of these bars to make removal easier.
The forms, or rough bucks, for doors, windows, air-conditioning ducts, and so forth, are set before the steel is placed and should be on the same plane as the edge forms.
BOND-BREAKING AGENTS. - Bond-breaking agents are one of the most important items of precast concrete construction. The most important requirement is that they must break the bond between the casting surface and the cast panel. Bond-breaking agents must also be economical, fast drying, easily applied, easily removed, or leave a paintable surface on the cast panel, if desired. They are broken into two general types: sheet materials and liquids.
Many commercially available bond-breaking agents are available. You should obtain the type best suited for the project and follow the manufacturer's application instructions. If commercial bond-breaking agents are not available, several alternatives can be used.
Paper and felt effectively prevent a bond with a casting surface, but usually stick to the cast panels and may cause asphalt stains on the concrete.Continue Reading