still hard and very slippery. This is why nonskid paints
are used so extensively.
Wood is the preferred floor material; however, it is
the most expensive. Tile floors have become popular
recently due to their low initial cost and ease of
replacement. Some caution should be exercised in
specifying the exact type of tile due to solvents and
other inherent damaging effects when used in a
Walls and Ceilings
The WALLS should be made of CMU, tile, or other
material that can be easily cleaned and very durable.
Windows should be placed as high up in the walls as
possible to let natural light in. As a general rule,
windows are required to be placed a minimum of 54
inches from the floor. If you want to put an acoustical
plaster or other soundproof material on the walls, be
sure it is a minimum of 5 feet from the floor. CEILING
heights for a shop should be at least 12 feet high.
Although cost will be a definite factor, acoustical
material or treatment is highly recommended for the
You will also need space for an office. As a rule,
try to locate the office in an area of the shop where you
will be least disturbed by noise. The shop layout plan
should make provision for a bulletin board upon which
safety posters, maintenance posters, instructions and
notices, plan-of-the-day, and such other information
may be posted, as appropriate.
The bulletin board should be located in a prominent
place in the shop, preferably near the entrance where
personnel will be likely to pass during the day. If
necessary, artificial lighting should be provided so that
material on the bulletin board can be easily read. The
material posted on the bulletin board should be changed
frequently, expired notices promptly removed, current
plan-of-the-day posted early, and posters and other
material rotated periodically.
MILLWORK is shaped items of wood that are
made, in most cases, from well seasoned kiln-dried
lumber (4 to 9 percent moisture content) that requires
manufacturing. Most millwork products are used in the
interior of buildings and is installed by finish carpenters.
However, the Builders do various types of construction
and the need to understand millwork concepts and
construction techniques associated with millwork is
Millworking not only includes interior trim
products but, casework, doors, kitchen and bathroom
cabinets, window frames and sashes, stairs, furniture,
specialized items made to order, and woodwork that is
turned. The majority of the millwork in the construction
industry is constructed and sold by two methods:
Setup millwork which is assembled and ready to
be installed with minimal or no fitting, such as prehung
doors, molding, cabinets, and so on.
Knocked-down millwork which is assembled by
the Builder on the jobsite, such as window frames,
doorframes, flooring products, some furniture units,
stairs and accessories, and so on.
Most products are produced in a manufacturing mill
or plant and are ready to be installed by fastening to the
wall or floor. If the need arises for you to install these
types of products, refer to the manufacturers
instructions and/or the plans and specifications.
As the Builder in charge of a shop, you and your
crew will be tasked at times to make plaques, flag cases,
bookcases, shelving units, and cabinets. Many of these
projects you are tasked with will be nothing more than
an idea and you will be required to interpret by sketching
their idea on paper and developing this idea into a
In the previous BU training manual (TRAMAN),
you learned the basic concepts of drawings, interior and
exterior trim, and casework mentioned in this section.
However, with the large scope of products and changing
technology, these products could not be covered
sufficiently due to time and space constraints. The next
section will cover designing, constructing, and
installing millwork products.
Cabinetmaking is primarily used in interior finish
carpentry, such as furniture, kitchens, bathrooms, and
casework. A&E firms, Builders, or cabinetmakers that
specialize in cabinetry, usually plan their cabinetwork