Figure 4-22. - Standard shapes of end-construction building tiles.
show the sizes and shapes of basic side-and end-construction building units. Special shapes for use at corners and openings, or for use as closures, are also available.
The compressive strength of the individual tile depends on the materials used and the method of manufacture in addition to the thickness of the shells and webs. A minimum compressive strength of tile masonry of 300 pounds per square inch based on the gross section may be expected. The tensile strength of structural clay tile masonry is small. In most cases, it is less than 10 percent of the compressive strength.
The abrasion resistance of clay tile depends primarily upon its compressive strength. The stronger the tile, the greater its resistance to wearing. The abrasion resistance decreases as the amount of water absorbed increases.
Structural clay facing tile has excellent resistance to weathering. Freezing and thawing action produces almost no deterioration. Tile that will absorb no more than 16 percent of its weight of water has never given unsatisfactory performance in resisting the effect of freezing and thawing action. Only portland cement-lime mortar or mortar prepared from masonry cement should be used if the masonry is exposed to the weather.
Walls containing structural clay tile have better heat-insulating qualities than walls composed of solid units, because of the dead air space that exists in tile walls. The resistance to sound penetration of this type of masonry compares favorably with the resistance of solid masonry walls, but it is somewhat less.
The fire resistance of tile walls is considerably less than the fire resistance of solid masonry walls. It can be improved by the application of a coat of plaster to the surface of the wall. Partition walls of structural clay tile 6 inches thick will resist a fire for 1 hour provided the fire produces a temperature of not more than 1700°F.
The solid material in structural clay tile weighs about 125 pounds per cubic foot. Since the tile contains hollow cells of various sizes, the weight of the tile varies, depending upon the manufacturer and type. A 6-inch tile wall weighs approximately 30 pounds per square foot, while a 12-inch tile wall weighs approximately 45 pounds per square foot.
Structural clay tile may be used for the exterior walls of either the load-bearing or nonload-bearing type. It is suitable for both below-grade and above-grade construction.Continue Reading