15. Mechanical Systems include plumbing, heating, air conditioning, fire-protection systems, and refrigeration systems.
16. Electrical Systems include electrical service and distribution systems, electrical power equipment, electric heating and cooling systems, lighting, and other electrical items.
Each of the previous divisions is further divided into sections. You can find information on the required sections of Division 1 in the MIL-HDBK-1006/1, Policy and Procedures for Project Drawing and Specification Preparation. The Division 1 section is generally common to all projects done under a construction contract. Divisions 2 through 16 contain the technical sections that pertain to the specific project for which the spec writer has prepared the specification. These technical sections follow the CSI-recommended three-part section format. The first part, General, includes requirements of a general nature. Part 2, Products, addresses the products or quality of materials and equipment to be included in the work. The third part, Execution, provides detailed requirements for performance of the work.
Some construction industries have developed a division 17 or 18 to the CSI due to the changing technology of construction. Even NAVFAC has developed a division 17, called the "Expeditionary Structures," which includes K-SPAN and High Tension Fabric buildings. Refer to chapter 9 for more information on Division 17 or the P-405.
Usually, the engineer or spec writer prepares each section of a specification based on the appropriate guide specification listed in the Engineering and Design Criteria for Navy Facilities, MIL-BUL-34. This military bulletin (issued quarterly by the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Port Hueneme, California) lists current NAVFACENGCOM guide specifications, standard specifications and drawings, definitive drawings, NAVFAC design manuals, and military handbooks that are used as design criteria.
The preceding material provides only a brief overview of construction specifications. For additional guidance regarding specification preparation, refer to Policy and Procedures for Project Drawing and Specification Preparation, MIL-HDBK-1006/1, and EA Intermediate/Advanced.
PLANNING is the process the Builders use to determine requirements and to devise and develop methods and actions for constructing a project. Good construction planning is a combination of the following elements: understanding the plans and specifications and understanding and analyzing the available resources, such as material, equipment, and manpower. PLANNING is also the process of determining the working environment, quality control, and safety procedures/precautions. All of these elements depend upon each other and must be considered in any well-planned project.
In the late 1950s, a new system of project planning, scheduling, and control came into widespread use in the construction industry. The critical path analysis (CPA), critical path method (CPM), and project evaluation and review technique (PERT) are three examples of about 50 different approaches. The basis for each of these approaches is the analysis of a network of events and activities. The generic title of the various networks is network analysis.
The NETWORK ANALYSIS approach is now the accepted method of construction planning in many organizations. Network analysis forms the core of project planning and control systems. Network analysis separates the planning of the sequence of jobs from the scheduling of times for the jobs, thus overcoming simultaneous, and less effective, planning and scheduling.
All projects consist of separate but interrelated operations. In network analysis, these interrelated operations are called "activities." Activities are broken down into two phases: master activities (Level IIs) and construction or detailed activities (Level IIIs). Master and construction activities will be covered throughout this section.
The first stage in applying this technique is the preparation of a list of all activities that constitute the project to be scheduled. This list can be obtained in the following ways:
Study of the plans and the specifications (fig. 2-1 2)
Study of the manufacturer's specifications
Bill of materials (BMs)Continue Reading