The organizations publishing these specifications include, but are not limited to, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), the Underwriters Laboratories (UL), and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Trade association specifications contain requirements common to many companies within a given industry.
Manufacturer's specifications contain the precise description for the manner and process for making, constructing, compounding, and using any items the manufacturer produces. They should not be referenced or copied verbatim in project specifications but may be used to aid in the preparation of them.
Construction drawings are supplemented by written project specifications. Project specifications give detailed information regarding materials and methods of work for a particular construction project. They cover various factors relating to the project, such as general conditions, scope of work, quality of materials, standards of workmanship, and protection of finished work. Usually, drawings are accompanied by a set of project specifications. The drawings and project specifications are inseparable. Drawings indicate what the project specifications do not cover. Project specifications indicate what the drawings do not portray and clarify details that are not covered amply by the drawings. When you are preparing project specifications, it is important that the specifications and drawings be closely coordinated so that discrepancies and ambiguities are minimized. Whenever there is conflicting information between the drawings and project specs, the specifications take precedence over the drawings.
For consistency, the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) has organized the format of specifications into 16 construction divisions. These divisions, used throughout the military and civilian construction industry, are listed in order as follows:
1. General Requirements include information that is of a general nature to the project, such as inspection requirements and environmental protection.
2. Site Work includes work performed on the site, such as grading, excavation, compaction, drainage, site utilities, and paving.
3. Concrete includes precast and cast-in-place concrete, formwork, and concrete reinforcing.
4. Masonry includes concrete masonry units, brick, stone, and mortar.
5. Metals include such items as structural steel, open-web steel joists, metal stud and joist systems, ornamental metal work, grills, and louvers. (Sheet-metal work is usually included in Division 7.)
6. Wood and Plastics include wood and wood framing, rough and finish carpentry, foamed plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics, and laminated plastics.
7. Thermal and Moisture Protection includes such items as waterproofing, dampproofing, insulation, roofing materials, sheet metal and flashing, caulking, and sealants.
8. Doors and Windows include doors, windows, finish hardware, glass and glazing, storefront systems, and similar items.
9. Finishes include such items as floor and wall coverings, painting, lathe, plaster, and tile.
10. Specialties include prefabricated products and devices, such as chalkboards, moveable partitions, fire-fighting devices, flagpoles, signs, and toilet accessories.
11. Equipment includes such items as medical equipment, laboratory equipment, food service equipment, kitchen and bath cabinetwork, and countertops.
12. Furnishings include prefabricated cabinets, blinds, drapery, carpeting, furniture, and seating.
13. Special Construction includes such items as pre-engineered structures, integrated ceiling systems, solar energy systems, aquatic facilities, and air supported structures.Continue Reading