to binding at the hinge edge, as well as friction between
the dead bolt and strike plate or between the latch bolt
and strike plate.
METAL DOORS. Metal doors, commonly
used in warehouses, hangars, stockrooms, galleys, and
other areas where hard service or other operations
require them, are of various types: metal clad, hollow
metal, and solid metal, with variations including
interchangeable glass and screen panels.
Because most metal and fittings are shop-designed
and fabricated, it can be assumed that they will
maintain their shape and mechanical operating ability
provided hinges, locks, and other fittings remain
secure in their fastenings. This is done by checking
screens, nuts and bolts, and special fasteners and
operating devices regularly, keeping them tight and in
good order. Building settlement, mechanical failure,
and collision may require investigation and corrective
measures for a basic cause of misalignment in the
structure framing itself. Frames must be plumb and
corners square, so the door fits the opening with proper
clearances. Weatherproofing and caulking must be
maintained in a workmanlike manner. Mechanically
operated doors must be removed and straightened,
repaired, or replaced. Repair material and finishing
should match the existing material. Shop repair of
metal doors should meet acceptable standards for
welding, riveting, and sightliness. Replacement of
surface metal on fireproof, metal-clad wood doors
must be weathertight and of material of the same gauge
as originally provided. Service doors in galleys,
stockrooms, and other areas where personnel pass in
and out frequently with arms loaded should be
provided with kickplates and with bumper protection
to prevent slamming against walls.
Both wood and metal windows are found in
structures at Navy activities, and the inspector should
be alert to detect any defects present in either type.
Windows should be inspected quarterly, as
appropriate, for loose-fitting or damaged frames,
ill-fitting or broken sash, cracked or broken glass,
deteriorated putty or caulking, broken or worn sash
balances, and missing or broken hardware.
Window failures may result from various
causesthe most common of which is weathering.
Weathering causes loss of putty, paint, and caulking
and this leads to deterioration and rotting in wood
windows and rusting in metal windows. If atmospheric
conditions cause ordinary putty to deteriorate quickly,
plastic glazing compound should be substituted.
Caulking around window frames must be maintained
in good order to prevent leakage of moisture and air
(fig. 7-7). Rust spots on metal sash and frames should
be wire brushed or sanded, cleaned with a rag saturated
with mineral spirits, and then painted. Problems of
alignment caused by building settlements must be
adjusted in conjunction with overall corrective
measures, that may involve stabilizing the foundation
Roof structures can be classified according to their
shapes and structural limitations. They can be flat,
pitched, sloped (such as shed or lean-to types), curved
(such as provided by bow-string trusses or circular
arches), or mansard, which is a combination of a steep
pitched and a shallow pitched roof. Roofs that are
supported on exterior walls and at a ridge or bearing
at some intermediate point are usually referred to as
frame roofs. Those that are truss or arch supported only
at the exterior walls or other trusses or columns are
referred to as trussed roofs. Rafters are the structural
members of a frame roof.
Rafters are generally more accessible to
inspection than other structural members of a frame
building. They are usually uncovered on the underside,
so defects and failures can be visually detected.
Warped, twisted, or broken rafters can be replaced or,
if the roof surface is sound, they may be repaired.
Warped and twisted rafters can be straightened by the
addition of solid bridging and bracing; broken pieces
can be scabbed without harm to the roof covering.
Railers, sheathing, and other roof-framing members
that are damaged by decay must be replaced. A
prevalent cause of the need for extensive roof
maintenance is failure of the roof covering. Leaky
roofs no longer protect the framing, thus allowing
weathering and eventual decay.
Trusses should be inspected at least once a year to
check for the existence of problems such as the
Failure in upper and lower chord or web