That plaster base or other surfacing or panels and
trim are carefully and accurately installed so that a neat,
workmanlike finish is obtained. When necessary, make
sure that all fastenings are completely concealed behind
the trim and that the latter is nailed with finished brads.
You may have occasion to inspect various types of
roofs, including concrete, corrugated metal, wood, and
so on. Although this chapter is broad in scope, it does
not cover all the different types of roofs. The subject
matter is limited to wood roofs.
When a pitched roof is inspected, you, as the
inspector, must ensure the following:
That all framing is cut accurately to exact length.
It must be beveled or mitered as necessary to assure
proper bearing of the cut at all meeting faces, and it must
be securely nailed.
That all bracing, trusses, collar ties, king post,
and end studs are provided according to the drawings
That sheathing is laid tight and straight and that
it is nailed according to the specifications. You should
be sure that sheathing on pitched roofs is started at the
eaves, with the face grain laid perpendicular to the
rafters and with the horizontal joints staggered at
Thickness of plywood is very important to any roof,
and this is where local codes tend to differ due to load
design, wind resistance, or type of roofing material.
Normally 1/2-inch plywood is the minimum; however,
7/16-inch oriented stranded board (OSB) is widely used
in residential construction.
THERMAL AND MOISTURE
The material and its installation, used in thermal and
moisture protection, is critical to any construction. In
the construction industry, insulation is usually thought
of in relation to heat transmission, although sound is an
equally important item to consider. There are so many
different types of thermal and moisture protection, such
as waterproofing, dampproofing, vapor and air
retarders, fireproofing, various types of insulation
(blanket, batt, and loose), and joint sealers. However,
with limited space, we will briefly cover waterproofing,
building insulations, and joint sealers.
Waterproofing is the material used that results in the
protection of an area, structure, or individual member
from the presence of water, whether it is in the form of
a liquid or a vapor.
Membrane waterproofing is achieved by the
placement of a moisture-impervious membrane, such as
bituminous membrane (felt paper), polyethylene
(plastic), or sheet rubber. When a membrane
waterproofing material is applied to a surface, that
surface must be clean and free from foreign material and
kept dry. You must ensure quality workmanship and
proper installation procedures are strictly followed.
Insulation materials are resistant to the passage of
either heat, and sound, or both. Typical insulation
materials include the following: foamed glass, foamed
plastics, glass fibers, cork, asbestos fibers, and granular
fibers, such as vermiculite and perlite. Insulating
materials are often designed to trap dead air space.
Before the installation of these materials, make sure
that no moisture has damaged the material due to
handling or transporting. Again, adhere to quality
workmanship during installation.
Fiber glass (blanket, batt, or loose) must be
inspected for the approved manufacturers
specifications for the proper R value and thickness.
Fiber glass is usually covered on one or two sides with
either a paper backing or foil backing or wrapped with
a plastic wrap. It also may be blown in loose.
When fiber glass insulation is inspected, make sure
that the proper procedures are followed according to the
specifications or manufacturers specifications. In the
construction industry today, fiber glass is treated
almost like asbestos. Check with your safety officer
or environmental officer for the proper handling
In masonry construction vermiculite and perlite
are excellent sound-proofing insulation to fill all the
hollow cores that are not already filled by concrete.
Vermiculite and perlite are also used as an additive to
plaster or joint compound to texture the ceilings and
The purpose of joint sealers (caulking) is to obtain
a watertight structure. In masonry walls, a space about