variety of materials available for this application - wood, quarry tile, resilient tile, glazed tile, sheet vinyl, carpet, and block flooring, such as slat block, laminated block, and solid-unit block. Unfortunately, we are limited with space and the Navy tends to use resilient tile as its primary surface, because it's easy to apply, durable, and cost-effective.
Resilent Flooring. - As the inspector, you must keep in mind that floor tile, especially 9-inch by 9-inch tile, was commonly made of asbestos fibers until the late 1970s. So if there is any demolition to be done, it is vital to take a sample of the flooring first.
You must ensure that the flooring material is placed starting from the center and working outward; this method ensures that the border tile is of equal size. Reminder: Read the specifications; usually the specifications will call for two coats of wax applied to the surface before occupancy.
Floor Tile. - Floor tiles are of several varieties, such as flint tile, unglazed or semiglazed ceramic tile, or quarry tile. Glazed ceramic tile, such as that generally used for a wall finish, is occasionally used. Flint and ceramic tiles are usually of small size and of hexagonal, square, or rectangular shape and are delivered with the patterns assembled in panels of about 12 inches square, cemented on the face to the paper. These tiles are also available in various square and rectangular sizes and in a variety of colors, shades, and textures.
You must ensure that tiles for both field and borders are of the kind, size, color, texture, and pattern specified and that adequate quantities are on hand to assure completion of each room or area. You must determine that mortar for beds and wire mesh or other reinforcement, if required, conform to the specifications.
Also, make sure that the structural floor is prepared and ready to receive the tile and to assure a true, level, finished floor. If the floor is of wood, you must make certain that the floor joists are leveled at the top and that the subfloor is set down as necessary to provide an adequate mortar bed. If the floor slab is concrete, you must make sure that it is depressed below the finished floor grade as required, roughened to provide bond, thoroughly cleaned, and wetted down immediately before the mortar bed is placed. Likewise, see to it that the mortar bed is placed and screeded and that tiles are set immediately and tamped level and true with straight, even, uniform joints. You must ensure that tile placed as paperbacked panels is set so that the pattern repeats truly and so that joints between panels match those established within the panels. You must be particularly careful to determine that the tile is laid parallel to the principal walls and that all special work required to fill in corners and irregular areas is placed so that joints are true and the pattern is faithfully reproduced without offset or other error. You must be sure that all joints are carefully and neatly filled with mortar, as specified, and that the floor is cleaned of all mortar. After the mortar has set, check the floor for loose tile, irregularities, or other defects that require the connection of such. Quarry tile may be specified to be set in bituminous mastic or in colored white cement mortar. You must determine that the mortar conforms to the specified requirement and that tiles are set level with even joints and are solidly embedded.
WALLS AND PARTITIONS. - Various types of materials are used as finishes for walls and partitions. However, we will only cover drywall and wall tile.
Drywall. - Drywall construction has replaced the plastering methods for walls and ceilings in the construction industry. More than 80 percent of the homes today use some form of gypsum wallboard. It has been developed as an economical finish for walls and ceilings because of the increased cost of plasterwork and the relative scarcity of expert plasterers. Essentially, it consists of panels of wallboard of various types with joints tight, true, and effectively concealed.
As an inspector, you must be sure that the studding on which the wall is to be installed is brought carefully to a plumb, true plane. You must ascertain that all materials used are strictly adhered to by the specifications and that the wallboard is applied accurately (remember the nailing patterns for walls and ceilings).
Check the walls for the required number of coats of joint compound, as required, and that the finished wall is true and uniform in texture and appearance with joints substantially invisible.
Wall Tile. - Glazed ceramic tile, glazed vitrified (waterproof) clay tile, and plastic tile are used for wall finishes for baths, galleys, mess halls, hospital rooms, and other applications for which a highly sanitary, easily cleaned, impervious wall finish is required. Tiles are furnished with various types of grooves, ridges, or clincher button heads on the back to assure bond.
You must make sure that the tile furnished conforms to the specifications in kind, quality, size, color, glaze, texture, and grip. Also, that all necessary specials, such as base, corners, decorative band, fixtures, and trim, areContinue Reading