rod to the deadmen. Thoroughly clean the tie rods and
turnbuckle by removing rust and corrosion. Repairs
may be made by welding new rods onto the corroded
area (fig. 7-20) or by installing new rods from the
turnbuckle to the face of the wall or outside of the
wales. Check the condition of the deadmen and either
make necessary repairs or strengthen them as required.
Tie rods should be replaced or repaired one at a time.
Coat new work with bituminous material, wrap with
fabric tape, apply another coating of bituminous
material over the tape, and then backfill the trench.
Wood pile and timber structures in a marine
environment are susceptible to infestation and attack
by marine organisms or wood rot spores. Therefore,
treated piles and timbers should be used in the repair
or replacement of such members in structures, unless
there is a specific reason for doing otherwise, on the
basis of the economic expected life. Southern yellow
pine, Douglas fir, and oak have been found to be most
suitable for waterfront structures; however, hemlock,
larch, spruce, cedar, and tamarack can be used. Bolts,
washers, spikes, driftpins, and other hardware used in
repair of timber members must be heavily galvanized.
The use of creosote-treated lumber for wood
decking is not recommended. Deck surfaces drain
rapidly and, being well ventilated, dry rapidly so that
the principal concern is not the same as it is for the
Figure 7-20.Repair of tie rods.
covered, inaccessible structural framing. Usage and
wear from traffic is generally the cause of deck repair
and replacement. Top surface decking over which
vehicular and pedestrian traffic passes should be
replaced when the top surface becomes excessively
uneven, hazardous, or worn to a point of possible
failure of the decking. Replacement should be with
edge-grain timber, surfaced on four sides. Decking
should be laid with 1/2-inch to 3/8-inch spaces
between each plank to permit ventilation and drainage.
The top surface should be reasonably smooth and
level, particularly where repaired areas meet existing
decking. End joints should be staggered where
existing and new decking meet. Decking should be
nailed securely at every stringer with 6-inch spikes for
3-inch decking and 7- or 8-inch spikes for 4-inch
decking. Spikes should be driven flush with the top
deck planking. Care should be taken to rebuild the
openings or access for underpier fire-fighting nozzles
or sprayers and for access to piping, valves, and
fittings into the repaired decking area. Decking for
relieving platforms that have an earth fill should be a
double layer of pressure-treated lumber laid without
spacing between planks.
Stringers that have rotted or have been damaged
should be replaced. Replacement stringers should be
tightly bolted where they lap with existing stringers
that are to remain, and they should be pinned or bolted
down to caps. Stringers that extend continuously for
the length of the pier may be replaced in part by
splicing to sound parts of the timber. Splices should be
placed directly over pile caps, and the splices in
adjacent stringers should be staggered where possible.
A typical splice for a 12-inch by 12-inch stringer or
cap is shown in figure 7-21.
Pile caps that require replacement because of rot
or damage should be completely replaced between the
splices of the original structure. Bolt holes in new caps
should be carefully made to align properly with bolt
holes in existing caps. It is preferable to use new
fishplates, particularly if they are of timber.
Diagonal and sash braces that have rotted, have
been broken, or have been weakened by marine borer
attack should be replaced. Each brace should be