with square, shiplap, or tongue-and-groove joints, is laid, driven tight, and bolted directly to the steelwork with carriage bolts. You must make sure that all materials and workmanship conform to the requirements of the specifications and that the floor is finished smooth and even.
Wood (stick) framing is widely used throughout the construction industry; however, the cost doubles that of metal framing. It is still the preferred method of construction, particularly for emergency and temporary construction. Quarters and temporary barracks may be of typical frame-house construction. Storehouses, particularly of the large one-story type, may have frames of wood posts, beams, and joists with wood roof sheathing. Shop buildings may have to be built of wood when steel and concrete are not available. Such structures may require heavy built-up timber columns and trusses, particularly if crane runways have to be provided. Large, wooden hangars have been built, necessitating trusses, with each member consisting of a number of heavy planks.
Structures that require wide-span construction have occasionally been framed with laminated wood arches, consisting of a large number of plies of relatively thin planks, glued together, with a special waterproof, durable glue. In addition, you may encounter many other special types of framing. With changing technology, glued-laminated beams will be a thing of the past and plastics may take over - who knows? We just cannot cover every aspect of the construction industry.
As the inspector, you must familiarize yourself fully with the drawings and specifications and the standard specifications used for references. Make sure the framing material is of the specified grade, size, and the surface has been inspected and grade marked.
You must make certain that the nails, bolts, screws, connector rings, and other fastening devices conform to the requirements in type and size. Also, ensure that metal ties, straps, hangers, stirrups, joist hangers, and similar accessories are suitable and correctly used. Where numerous plies of lumber are held together by long through-bolts, you should recheck the tightness of the nuts before the project is finally accepted because shrinkage of the lumber may have caused them to loosen.
As an inspector, make sure that the wall material conforms to the specifications as to the kind of wood, grade, and manufacture or has been inspected or grade marked. You must ensure that the wall sheathing is tight and covered with a building wrap (vapor barrier) and flashed as necessary for weathertightness. Also, make certain that siding is applied carefully so that the lines are straight and true and that laps and exposed faces are correct. In addition, make sure that nails are the specified kind and weight, are driven flush, recessed, or blind, as specified; and that, if recessed, they are filled over with a suitable plastic wood putty.
Wood partitions are used in all frame construction. In most cases, wood partitions are composed of 2- by 4-inch wood studs with sills and plates of the same material. Studs are doubled at openings, and the top plates are usually doubled to provide strong splices.
Headers, encountered in light-frame construction, are required at all openings of load-bearing and non-load bearing walls. Remember, non-load bearing headers run parallel with the joist, and unless the opening is more than 3 feet wide, a single 2 by 4 (laid flat) is sufficient as a header. Load-bearing headers run perpendicular to the joist and carries the load immediately above the openings. Load-bearing headers should be doubled and laid on edge. If the opening is more than 3 feet in width, the header will need additional strength to carry the load imposed upon it from above. Check the local building codes, plans, and specifications, and Architectural Graphics Standard (AGS) for more information on headers.
Wood partitions to be finished on both sides are covered with wood lath, metal lath, plasterboard, or some other base or may be covered in drywall construction with wallboard of various types. Wood partitions in offices are frequently covered by paneling. This type of construction uses studs spaced fairly wide apart (2 feet) with either tongue-and-groove panels, wallboard, masonite, or other material used for wall coverings. Such partitions frequently extend only part way to the ceiling, and the upper panels maybe glazed, glass panels, or glass block. In the Tropics, wood partitions may be surfaced on one side only, leaving the studding fully exposed on the other side to eliminate all concealed spaces and permit effective control of termites and other vermin.
As the inspector, you must ensure the following:
That all partitions are adequately anchored to the floor, the walls, and the ceiling, as specified, and are adequately braced and stiffened at all splices and corners.
That studs are set truly plumb and in line, and are well nailed to sills and plates.Continue Reading