Figure 8-31.Pulling and pushing travel angle techniques.
When the torch is ahead of the weld, it is known as
pulling (or dragging) the weld. When the torch is behind
the weld, it is referred to as pushing the metal (fig. 8-31).
The pulling or drag technique is for heavy-gauge
metals. Usually the drag technique produces greater
penetration than the pushing technique. Also, since the
welder can see the weld crater more easily, better quality
welds can consistently be made. The pushing technique
is normally used for light-gauge metals. Welds made
with this technique are less penetrating and wider be-
cause the welding speed is faster.
For the best results, you should position the weld-
ment in the flat position. This position improves the
molten metal flow, bead contour, and gives better shield-
ing gas protection.
After you have learned to weld in the flat position,
you should be able to use your acquired skill and knowl-
edge to weld out of position. These positions include
horizontal, vertical-up, vertical-down, and overhead
welds. The only difference in welding out of position
from the fiat position is a 10-percent reduction in am-
When welding heavier thicknesses of metal with the
GMA welding process, you should use the multipass
technique (discussed in chapter 3). This is accomplished
by overlapping single small beads or making larger
beads, using the weaving technique. Various multipass
welding sequences are shown in figure 8-32. The num-
bers refer to the sequences in which you make the
Common Weld Defects
Once you get the feel of welding with GMA equip-
ment, you will probably find that the techniques are less
difficult to master than many of the other welding pro-
cesses; however, as with any other welding process,
GMA welding does have some pitfalls. To produce good
quality welds, you must learn to recognize and correct
possible welding defects. The following are a few of the
more common defects you may encounter along with
corrective actions that you can take.
Figure 8-32.Multipass welding.