Figure 4-14.Four cutting-tip conditions.
produce a even flow of gas and to keep themselves as
cool as possible. The seats must produce leakproof
joints. If the joints leak, the preheat gases could mix
with the cutting oxygen or escape to the atmosphere,
resulting in poor cuts or the possibility of flashbacks.
To make clean and economical cuts, you must
keep the tip orifices and passages clean and free of
burrs and slag. If the tips become dirty or
misshapened, they should be put aside for restoration.
Figure 4-14 shows four tips: one that is repairable,
two that need replacing, and one in good condition.
Since it is extremely important that the sealing
surfaces be clean and free of scratches or burrs, store
the tips in a container that cannot scratch the seats.
Aluminum racks, plastic racks, and wood racks or
boxes make ideal storage containers.
TIP MAINTENANCE. In cutting operations,
the stream of cutting oxygen sometimes blows slag
and molten metal into the tip orifices which partially
clogs them. When this happens, you should clean the
orifices thoroughly before you use the tip again. A
small amount of slag or metal in an orifice will
seriously interfere with the cutting operation. You
should follow the recommendations of the torch
manufacturer as to the size of drill or tip cleaner to
use for cleaning the orifices. If you do not have a tip
cleaner or drill, you may use a piece of soft copper
wire. Do not use twist drills, nails, or welding rods for
cleaning tips because these items are likely to enlarge
and distort the orifices.
Clean the orifices of the cutting torch tip in the
same manner as the single orifice of the welding torch
tip. Remember: the proper technique for cleaning the
tips is to push the cleaner straight in and out of the
orifice. Be careful not to turn or twist the cleaning
wire. Figure 4-15 shows a typical set of tip cleaners.
Occasionally the cleaning of the tips causes
enlargement and distortion of the orifices, even when
using the proper tip cleaners. If the orifices become
enlarged, you will get shorter and thicker preheating
flames; in addition, the jet of cutting oxygen will
spread, rather than leave the torch, in the form of a
long, thin stream. If the orifices become belled for a
short distance at the end, you can sometimes correct
this by rubbing the tip back and forth against emery
cloth placed on a flat surface. This action wears down
the end of the tip where the orifices have been belled,
thus bringing the orifices back to their original size.
Obviously, this procedure will not work if the damage
is great or if the belling extends more than a slight
distance into the orifice.
After reconditioning a tip, you may test it by lighting
the torch and observing the preheating flames. If the
Figure 4-15.Tip cleaners.