Table 1-2. - Mechanical Properties of Metals/Alloys
Strength is the property that enables a metal to resist deformation under load. The ultimate strength is the maximum strain a material can withstand. Tensile strength is a measurement of the resistance to being pulled apart when placed in a tension load.
Fatigue strength is the ability of material to resist various kinds of rapidly changing stresses and is expressed by the magnitude of alternating stress for a specified number of cycles.
Impact strength is the ability of a metal to resist suddenly applied loads and is measured in foot-pounds of force.
Hardness is the property of a material to resist permanent indentation. Because there are several methods of measuring hardness, the hardness of a material is always specified in terms of the particular test that was used to measure this property. Rockwell, Vickers, or Brinell are some of the methods of testing. Of these tests, Rockwell is the one most frequently used. The basic principle used in the Rockwell testis that a hard material can penetrate a softer one. We then measure the amount of penetration and compare it to a scale. For ferrous metals, which are usually harder than nonferrous metals, a diamond tip is used and the hardness is indicated by a
Rockwell "C" number. On nonferrous metals, that are softer, a metal ball is used and the hardness is indicated by a Rockwell "B" number. To get an idea of the property of hardness, compare lead and steel. Lead can be scratched with a pointed wooden stick but steel cannot because it is harder than lead.
A full explanation of the various methods used to determine the hardness of a material is available in commercial books or books located in your base library.
Toughness is the property that enables a material to withstand shock and to be deformed without rupturing. Toughness may be considered as a combination of strength and plasticity. Table 1-2 shows the order of some of the more common materials for toughness as well as other properties.
When a material has a load applied to it, the load causes the material to deform. Elasticity is the ability of a material to return to its original shape after the load is removed. Theoretically, the elastic limit of a material is the limit to which a material can be loaded and still recover its original shape after the load is removed.Continue Reading