Figure 5-5.Welding tip orifice cleaner.
Figure 5-6.A welding tip cleaner in use.
Figure 5-7.Reconditioning the orifice end of a torch tip.
The flame end of the tip must be clean and smooth.
The surface must beat right angles to the centerline of
the tip orifice to ensure a proper shaped flame. A 4-inch
mill file or the file in the tip cleaner can be used to
recondition the surface, as shown in figure 5-7.
Recondition the tip if it becomes rough and pitted
or the orifice is bell-mouthed. An easy method to use
involves placing apiece of emery cloth, grit side up, on
a flat surface; hold the tip perpendicular to the emery
cloth, and rub the tip back and forth just enough to true
the surface and to bring the orifice back to its original
Welding Torch Tips
Welding tips are subject to considerable abuse and
you must keep the orifice smooth and clean if the tip is
to perform satisfactorily. When cleaning a welding tip,
you must be careful and ensure you do not enlarge or
scar the orifice. Carbon deposits and slag must be re-
moved regularly to ensure good performance.
Avoid dropping a tip because the seat that seals the
joint may be damaged. Also, the flame end of the tip also
may receive damage if it is allowed to come in contact
with the welding work, bench, or firebricks. This dam-
age roughens the end of the tip and causes the flame to
burn with a fishtail.
Special welding tip cleaners have been developed
to remove the carbon or slag from the tip orifice. The
cleaner consists of a series of broachlike wires that
correspond in diameter to the diameter of the tip orifices
(fig. 5-5). These wires are packaged in a holder, which
makes their use safe and convenient. Figure 5-6 shows
a tip cleaner in use. Some welders prefer to use a number
drill the size of the tip orifice to clean welding tip
orifices. A number drill must be used carefully so the
orifice is not enlarged, bell-mouthed, reamed out of
round, or otherwise deformed.
With regulators, gas leakage between the regulator
seat and nozzle is the most common type of trouble. You
often hear this problem referred to as regulator creep.
This problem can be detected by the gradual rise in
pressure on the working-pressure gauge without mov-
ing the adjusting screw. Frequently, this trouble is
caused by worn or cracked seats. It also can be caused
by foreign matter lodged between the seat and the noz-
zle. It is important that you have leaking regulators
repaired at once; otherwise, injury to personnel or equip-
ment damage could result. This is particular y danger-
ous with fuel-gas regulators because fuel gas at a high
pressure in a hose becomes an explosive hazard. To
ensure the safety of personnel and equipment, ensure
that regulators with such leaks are removed from service
and turned in for repair.
OXYGAS WELDING TECHNIQUES
Oxygas welding maybe done using either the fore-
hand or the backhand method. Each of these techniques
has special advantages and you should become skillful
with both. The deciding factor that determines whether
a technique is considered forehand or backhand is the
relative position of the torch and rod during welding, not