Figure 3-4.Weight and thickness of steel plate.
sheet, or plate, according to the thickness of the
material, the width of the material, and (to some
extent) the rolling process to which it was subjected.
Table 3-1 shows the designations usually used for
hot-rolled carbon steels. These terms are somewhat
flexible and in some cases may overlap.
The structural shape referred to as a BAR has a
width of 8 inches or less and a thickness greater than
3/16 of an inch. The edges of bars usually are rolled
square, like universal mill plates. The dimensions are
expressed in a similar manner as that for plates; for
instance, bar 6 inches x 1/2 inch. Bars are available in
a variety of cross-sectional shapesround,
hexagonal, octagonal, square, and flat. Three different
shapes are illustrated in figure 3-5. Both squares and
rounds are commonly used as bracing members of
light structures. Their dimensions, in inches, apply to
the side of the square or the diameter of the round.
Now that you have been introduced to the various
structural members used in steel construction, let us
develop a theoretical building frame from where you,
the Steelworker, would start on a project after all the
earthwork and footings or slab have been completed.
Remember this sequence is theoretical and may vary
somewhat, depending on the type of structure being
Anchor bolts (fig. 3-6) are cast into the concrete
foundation. They are designed to hold the column
bearing plates, which are the first members of a steel
frame placed into position. These anchor bolts must
be positioned very carefully so that the bearing plates
will be lined up accurately.
The column bearing plates are steel plates of
various thicknesses in which holes have been either
drilled or cut with an oxygas torch to receive the
Figure 3-6.Anchor bolts.
Table 3-1.Plate, Bar, Strip, and Sheet designation