1. A PRISM is a figure whose two bases arepolygons, alike in size and shape, lying in parallel planesand whose lateral edges connect corresponding verticesand are parallel and equal in length. A prism is a rightprism if the lateral edge is perpendicular the base. Thealtitude of a prism is the perpendicular distance betweenthe bases.2. A CONE is a figure generated by a line movingin such a manner that one end stays fixed at a point calledthe “vertex.” The line constantly touches a plane curvewhich is the base of the cone. A cone is a circular coneif its base is a circle. A circular cone is a right circularcone if the line generating it is constant in length. Thealtitude of a cone is the length of a perpendicular to theplane of the base drawn from the vertex.3. A PYRAMID is a figure whose base is a planeshape bounded by straight lines and whose sides aretriangular plane shapes connecting the vertex and a lineof the base. A regular pyramid is one whose base is aregular polygon and whose vertex lies on aperpendicular to the base at its center. The altitude of apyramid is the length of a perpendicular to the plane ofthe base drawn from the vertex.4. A CIRCULAR CYLINDER is a figure whosebases are circles lying in parallel planes connected by acurved lateral surface. A right circular cylinder is onewhose lateral surface is perpendicular to the base. (Note:Any reference in this text to a cylinder will mean acircular cylinder.) The altitude of a circular cylinder isthe perpendicular distance between the planes of the twobases.MEASUREMENT OF VOLUMEVolume is measured in terms of cubes,This represents a cube of sides. The volume of thismay be represented by S^{3}. Ifs equals l“, then the volumewould be 1 cubic inch, and ifs equals 1’, then the volumewould be 1 cubic foot, etc.It can be said that the volume of an object is mea-sured by the number of cubes contained in the objectwhen one side of the cube is equal in length to some unitof linear measure.COMMON VOLUME FORMULASAll factors in the formulas must be in the same linearunits. As an example, one term could not be expressedin feet while other terms are in inches.Volume of a Rectangular Prismv =wherev =w =l =h =Example:1 xwxhVolume in cubic incheswidth of the base in linear unitslength of base in linear unitsaltitude of the prism in linear unitsFind the number of cubic inches of water which can becontained by a rectangular can 5" x 6" x 10" high.Volume of a ConeororwhereV =A =h =r =d =Volume of a cone in cubic unitsArea of the base in square unitsAltitude of a cone in linear unitsRadius of the baseDiameter of the baseAII-18