formations be studied when a ground source is
It may be necessary to consider numerous
other factors that may affect the reliability of the
source. For one example; Lake Bonnie Rose, U.S.
Naval Station, Adak, Alaska, is an ample source
of cool, clear water, being distributed by gravity.
However, the relatively high elevation of the
lake results in excessive pressure at the station.
Pressures are controlled by pressure-reducing
valves. The valves sometimes fail in service,
resulting in damage to the water system.
Reliability of the source is further increased
as the requirements for items that are subject to
breakdown decrease (pumps, treatment plants,
and so on).
Legal advice may be necessary when selecting
a water source as the laws regulating and con-
trolling water rights may vary considerably. The
title to ground and surface water in the United
States is usually regulated at the state level.
Navigable waters having interstate traffic are
under federal control. Some difficulty was
experienced in Vietnam by SEABEES in securing
water rights to surface streams. These waters were
used for flooding of rice fields, and local control
denied the use of these sources as water supplies.
Legal advice may also be required in securing
the right for waterlines or powerlines to cross
property. To cite one example, a waterline serving
a naval air facility in Sicily was completed,
except for a section crossing an irrigation ditch.
Final completion of the waterline was delayed for
Figure 9-4.Limitation of water by rock formation.
2 months, waiting to obtain the right for the
waterline to cross the ditch.
DEVELOPMENT OF WATER
Development of a water source includes all
work that increases the quantity and improves the
quality of the water, or makes it more readily
available for treatment and distribution. The
development of surface water sources, springs,
and seawater sources is considered in this section.
In developing a source, dams, floats, galleries,
and similar improvements may be used to increase
the quantity and quality of the water. Elaborate
developments should be avoided; simplicity brings
more rapid results. A temporary water source
should not be converted into a permanent one
until the area has been reconnoitered for a source
requiring less development. All intake hoses or
pipes should be equipped with an intake strainer
regardless of the clearness of the water source.
Suction strainers should be protected from
floating debris that may damage, clog, or un-
necessarily pollute them. Proper anchorage of
suction lines and strainers prevents (1) loss of
prime, (2) punctured or kinked lines, and (3)
damage to strainers. Water at the intake point
should be as clear and deep as possible. The
strainer on the suction hose is placed at least 4
inches below the water level. This precaution
reduces the possibility of the strainer becoming
clogged with floating debris, or the prime being
lost because of air getting into the suction line.
SURFACE WATER DEVELOPMENT
Of the total amount of rainwater that falls
upon the land surface of the earth, only a com-
paratively small part is absorbed by the soil. By
far the greater part of it runs off the surface of
the ground and is carried out to the sea by way
of streams and rivers or remains stored in natural
lakes and ponds and in artificial lakes and
impounded reservoirs. The methods by which
water supply is derived from the surface are (1)
by damming of streams or rivers, (2) by using the
flow from streams, (3) by pumping directly from
surface streams, (4) by collecting water from the
roofs of buildings, (5) by providing catchment
areas for the collection of rainwater into specially
constructed cisterns, (6) by solar distillation,
(7) by power distillations, (8) by freezing, and
(9) by electrodialysis.
For normal field water supply, surface water
is the most accessible type of water source. This