changed to steam by the steam condensing in the tubes. This involves the transfer of latent heat. The steam in the evaporator is drawn into the compressor where it is compressed and its temperature raised (from 212F to 222F). The compressed steam flows back through the coils in the evaporator-condenser where it transfers its latent heat through the walls of the coil into the water in the evaporator section. This transfer of latent heat causes the steam to condense in the coils and changes the water in the evaporator into steam. This cycle will continue as long as the compressor runs.
At permanent naval activities, the installation of distillation equipment will be designed by engineers and improvements to the system can be made over a long period of time. In the tactical field environment, it will be the Utilitiesman supervisor who must consider various factors for the installation of distillation equipment. These are as follows:
potable water demand
The demand for potable water will determine the number of distillation units, the need for storage facilities, operating hours, and so forth. You must determine the population you will be serving. Keep in mind that your water point may supply many units in an area, not just your organization.
The site location for distillation equipment must be upstream of any source of contamination. You must consider ocean currents that may change with wind direction, weather conditions, the season of the year, or tidal action. It is not efficient use of personnel or equipment if you have to relocate because the wind changed direction.
The site must also be relatively flat with a gradual slope toward the ocean. You also must allow for' maximum tidal action. In many areas the tide may rise and fall several feet, depending on the season of the year. Build low platforms to keep your equipment out of the sand and to allow air to circulate underneath tanks to prevent rot. These platforms also prevent punctures of the storage tanks by sharp objects and provide a stable working area for operating personnel.
The importance of providing adequate drainage at any water point cannot be overemphasized. Wastewater from filters, leakage from tanks, and spillage from distribution points can render a water point inoperable as well as creating an unsanitary condition.
Your water point may or may not be located in the vicinity of friendly forces. Denying the enemy information about your water point by using overhead concealment and camouflage may be necessary as well as guarding against ground attacks and sabotage with a defensive plan. Any adverse effect, from thirst to disease, the enemy can have on a water point will affect the well-being of the force using it. It willContinue Reading