direction, or other resistance conditions that can create unnecessary noise and reduce the air volume. The normal noise level of air flowing through a duct depends on the velocity of the air moving through the duct. This can be further reduced by lining or covering the duct with sound-absorbing material. The exterior of ducts that carry conditioned air can be covered with heat insulation materials to prevent heat transfer between ducts and the surrounding air. All materials used for duct lining and coverings must be noncombustible.
Ducts should be constructed for easy maintenance. They should have access plates or doors included to facilitate cleaning and inspection. It is important that the correct size duct (as specified on the prints or drawings) be used for the construction of the duct system. The amount of air to be carried depends on the size of the duct. This determines the pressure loss in the system-the larger the quantity of air moving through a duct of a given cross-sectional area, the greater the friction loss. Similarly, with a given quantity of air to be delivered, the friction loss increases in inverse proportion to the sizes of ducts provided to carry the air. Therefore, the power required at the fan for delivering a given quantity of air increases rapidly as the duct size is decreased. It is important to bear these facts in mind when it is necessary to replace or to change sections of ducts. The same size new duct should be used unless proper design provisions are made for a change in size.
Straight sections of rectangular duct are normally formed by personnel in the Steel-worker rating. This is normally accomplished on bending-brake type of equipment. Then the rectangular ductwork is joined together as mentioned earlier.
Straight sections of ducts can usually be laid out without a pattern. However, elbows, transitions, jump fittings, and so forth, require a pattern. While Steelworkers perform the task, you, as a planner, need to be aware of the time required to draw and fabricate the required patterns. Also bear in mind that if this is a one-time job, you can make the pattern of paper or cardboard. When there are large numbers of the same size and dimension fittings to be constructed, you should make the pattern of sheet metal.
A fiber glass duct is constructed of molded glass fibers covered with a thin film coating. This coating is usually of aluminum, but vinyl or other plastic coatings are sometimes used. Since they are made of glass fibers, the ducts are inherently insulated. Also, they are primarily used where insulation is a factor. Fiber glass meets military specifications for a flame spread rating of less than 25 and a smoke development rating of less than 50 for insulating material. The thickness of fiber glass ducts allowed for use in Navy installations must range between 3/4 inch to 2 inches, depending upon the size of the duct.
The nature of a fiber glass duct requires that it be supported with 1-inch by 1/16-inch galvanized steel strap hangers shaped to fit the duct. For round ducts, these supports must be on not less than 6-foot centers. Rectangular and square ducts up to 24-inch spans may be supported on 8-foot centers. Ducts larger than 24 inches require support on 4-foot centers.
The applicability of fiber glass ducts on heating systems is sometimes limited by the adhesive used on the protective outer covering to cause it to adhere to the fiber glass material. Unless aluminum surface duct is used, the specification of the duct should be checked carefully to ensure that it does not fail when heated over 250F.
Fiber glass ducts can be molded into a variety of shapes for special uses. Round ducts and reducers are available from manufacturers' stock. For most purposes, however, the duct is supplied flat in the form of a board, with V-grooves cut into the inner surface to allow folding to make a rectangular section. The ends of the boards are molded so that when the rectangular duct is formed, two sections of the same size fit together in a shiplap joint to ensure a tight joint in positive alignment. It is important to exercise care in selecting a board of adequate size to complete the desired duct before beginning cutting andContinue Reading