lists several examples of these types of wastes.
The three biological organisms present in wastewater are bacteria, viruses, and parasites.
Sewage consists of vast quantities of bacteria, most of which are harmless to man. However, pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms such as typhoid, dysentery, and other intestinal disorders may be present in wastewater. Tests for total coliform and fecal coliform nonpathogenic bacteria are used to indicate the presence of pathogenic bacteria. Because it is easier to test for coliforms, fecal coliform testing has been accepted as the best indicator of fecal contamination. Fecal coliform counts of 100 million per 100 milliliters may be found in raw domestic sewage. Detectable health effects have been found at levels of 2,300 to 2,400 total coliforms per 100 milliliters in recreational waters. Disinfection, usually chlorination, is generally used to reduce these pathogens. Breakdown or malfunctions of chlorination equipment will probably result in excessive discharge of pathogenic organisms and can seriously affect public health.
Bacteria can also be classified according to their dissolved oxygen requirement. Aerobic bacteria are bacteria that require dissolved oxygen to live. Anaerobic bacteria cannot live if dissolved oxygen is present.
Facultative bacteria can live with or without dissolved oxygen.
Wastewater often contains viruses that may produce diseases. Outbreaks of infectious hepatitis have been traced through water systems because of wastewater entering the supply. sedimentation, filtration, a n d disinfection, if used efficiently, usually provide acceptable virus removal.
There are also many species of parasites carried by wastewater. The life cycle of each is peculiar to the given parasite. Some are dangerous to man and livestock, particularly during certain stages of the life cycle. Amoebic dysentery is a common disease caused by amoebic parasites. Chlorination, chemical precipitation, sedimentation, or sand filtration is used to ensure protection against parasites.
Samples of sewage are taken to find out how well a treatment plant is working and what operating changes may need to be made, Some samples show how much the plant is reducing pollutants like BOD, solids, and so forth. Raw sewage entering the plant must be tested as well as the effluent from the plant and the receiving stream above and below the discharge point to determine how well the plant is removing pollutants. Since wastewater flows often change a great deal, daily sampling is suggested.
A sample should be taken in a way that will represent the wastewater being treated. No matter how good the lab analysis is, if the sample was not correctly collected, the lab data will not be correct. With the large changes in composition and flow rate, getting a representative sample can be very hard. Careful thought, planning, and training must be used to develop and carry out a good sampling program.
Samples may be taken by hand or automatically. Taking samples by hand may be as simple as tying an open bottle to a pole that can be lowered into the wastewater. Table 10-7 explains some of the things that should be done when taking samples by hand. The automatic samplers may be made by the operator or bought.
A grab sample is a single sample of wastewater taken over a short span of time, usually less than 15 minutes. This type of sample yields data about the wastewater at one time and place. The grab sample should be used where the wastewater does not change suddenly or change a great deal. For example, grab samples may be used to determine pH and temperature. GrabContinue Reading