being introduced into a collection system at their
Industrial wastes can also be very high or low
in pH because of acids and/or bases used in their
processes. You may expect intense colors in wastes
from painting areas. Grit, salt, and dirt levels may
be high from vehicle wash racks. Radioactive
wastes must never be dumped into. regular collec-
tion systems. They must be handled separately
and, in most cases, very carefully. Explosive or
flammable liquids can often enter the system from
fuel storage areas. These liquids also create a
dangerous fire hazard in a sewage treatment plant.
Storm water should be excluded from the
sewage collection system as much as possible.
Heavy input of storm water can disturb the opera-
tion of a treatment plant by sending it too much
water, a problem called hydraulic overloading.
This situation may force diverting or bypassing
effluent from the treatment plant. Bypassing is
normally a violation of National Pollutant
Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits.
These permits are controlled by the Environ-
mental Protection Agency (EPA). Bypassing can
result in releasing bacteria, heavy metals, and
other dangerous contaminants into receiving
waters. It is to be avoided whenever possible.
Very large paved or roofed areas should not
be drained into the sanitary collection system.
Maintenance personnel should prevent storm-
water infiltration as much as possible by
ensuring manholes are sealed, pipes are not
cracked or broken, and all leaking joints are
SOURCE QUANTITY VARIABLES
Each military installation has different
wastewater flows depending upon the types or
Table 10-1.Characteristics of Typical Wastewater Generated at Military Facilities
Total volatile solids
Total dissolved solids
Volatile suspended solids
Biochemical oxygen demand (5 day)
Total nitrogen as N
Ammonia nitrogen as N
Total phosphorus as P
Chemical oxygen demand
*All the above are measured in milligrams per liter (mg/I) except settleable solids, which are
measured in milliliters per liter (ml/I).