Quantcast Types of Governors

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Underrun is a simple term to describe the ability of the governor to prevent engine speed from dropping below a set idle, particularly when the throttle has been moved rapidly to a decreased fuel setting from maximum full-load position. Deadband  is the change in speed required before  the  governor  will  make  a  corrective movement of the throttle. State of balance is used to describe the speed at which  the  centrifugal  force  of  the  rotating flyweights of the governor matches and balances the spring force of the governor. Types of Governors The type of governor used on diesel engines is dependent upon the application required. The six basic types of governors are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mechanical centrifugal flyweight style that relies on a set of rotating flyweights and a control spring; used since the inception of the diesel engine to control its speed. Power-assisted  servomechanical  style  that operates  similar  to  the  mechanical  centrifugal flyweight but uses engine oil under pressure to move the operating linkage. Hydraulic  governor  that  relies  on  the  movement of a pilot valve plunger to control pressurized oil flow to a power piston, which, in turn, moves the fuel control mechanism. Pneumatic governor that is responsive to the air flow (vacuum) in the intake manifold of an engine.  A  diaphragm  within  the  governor housing is connected to the fuel control linkage that  changes  its  setting  with  increases  or decreases in the vacuum. Electromechanical  governor  uses  a  magnetic speed  pickup  sensor  on  an  engine-driven component to monitor the rpm of the engine. The  sensor  sends  a  voltage  signal  to  an electronic control unit that controls the current flow to a mechanical actuator connected to the fuel linkage. Electronic  governor  uses  magnetic  speed  sensor to monitor the rpm of the engine. The sensor continuously feeds information back to the ECM  (electronic  control  module).  The  ECM then computes all the information sent from all other  engine  sensors,  such  as  the  throttle position  sensor,  turbocharger-boost  sensor, engine oil pressure and temperature sensor, engine coolant sensor, and fuel temperature to limit engine speed. The   governors,   used   on   heavy-duty   truck applications and construction equipment, fall into one of two basic categories: 1. Limiting-speed governors, sometimes referred to  as  minimum/maximum  models  since  they  are intended to control the idle and maximum speed settings of the engine. Normally there is no governor control in the intermediate range, being regulated by the position of the throttle linkage. 2. Variable-speed or all range governors that are designed to control the speed of the engine regardless of the throttle setting. Other types of governors used on diesel engines are as  follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Constant-speed,  intended  to  maintain  the  engine at a single speed from no load to full load. Load limiting, to limit the load applied to the engine   at   any   given   speed.   Prevents overloading the engine at whatever speed it may be running. Load-control, used for adjusting to the amount of load applied at the engine to suit the speed at which it is set to run. Pressure regulating, used on an engine driving a pump to maintain a constant inlet or outlet pressure on the pump. At this time on heavy-duty truck and construction equipment  applications,  straight  mechanically  designed units  dominate  the  governor  used  on  nonelectronic  fuel injection  systems. Mechanical Governors In most governors installed on diesel engines used by the Navy, the centrifugal force of rotating weights (flyballs) and the tensions of a helical coil spring (or springs) are used in governor operation. On this basis, most of the governors used on diesel engines are generally called mechanical centrifugal flyweight governors. 5-9

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