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Types of Lubricating Systems

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Figure 6-29.—Splash-type lubrication system. TYPES OF LUBRICATING (OIL) SYSTEMS Now that you are familiar with the lubricating system components, you are ready to study the different systems that circulate oil through the engine. The systems used to circulate oil are known as splash, combination splash force feed, force feed, and full force-feed. Splash The splash system is no longer used in automotive engines. It is widely used in small four-cycle engines for lawn mowers, outboard marine operation, and so on. In the splash lubricating system (fig. 6-29), oil is splashed up from the oil pan or oil trays in the lower part of the crankcase. The oil is thrown upward as droplets or fine mist and provides adequate lubrication to valve mechanisms,  piston  pins,  cylinder  walls,  and  piston rings. In  the  engine,  dippers  on  the  connecting-rod bearing caps enter the oil pan with each crankshaft revolution to produce the oil splash.  A passage is drilled in each connecting rod from the dipper to the bearing to ensure lubrication. This  system  is  too  uncertain  for  automotive applications. One reason is that the level of oil in the crankcase will vary greatly the amount of lubrication received by the engine. A high level results in excess lubrication and oil consumption and a slightly low level results in inadequate lubrication and failure of the engine. Combination Splash and Force Feed In a combination splash and force feed (fig. 6-30), oil is delivered to some parts by means of splashing and Figure 6-30.—Combination splash and force-feed lubrication system. 6-32



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