An adequate amount of oxygen must be present in the exhaust system for the catalytic converter to operate; therefore, a supporting system, such as an air injection system, usually is placed on catalytic converter equipped engines to dilute the exhaust stream with fresh air.
An air injection system (fig. 4-51) forces fresh air into the exhaust ports of the engine to reduce HC and CO emissions. The exhaust gases leaving an engine can contain unburned and partially burned fuel. Oxygen from the air injection system causes this fuel to continue to burn. The major parts of the system are the air pump, the diverter valve, the air distribution manifold, and the air check valve.
The AIR PUMP is belt-driven and forces air at low pressure into the system. A hose is connected to the output of the diverter valve.
The DIVERTER VALVE keeps air from entering the exhaust system during deceleration. This prevents backfiring in the exhaust system. Also, the diverter valve limits maximum system air pressure when needed, releasing excessive pressure through a silencer or a muffler.
AIR DISTRIBUTION MANIFOLD directs a stream of fresh air toward each engine exhaust valve. Fittings on the air distribution manifold screw into a threaded hole in the exhaust manifold or cylinder head.
AIR CHECK VALVE is usually located in the line between the diverter valve and the air distribution manifold. It keeps exhaust gases from entering the air injection system.
Basic operation of the air injection system is as follows:
When the engine is running, the spinning vanes of the air pump force air into the diverter valve. If not decelerating, the air is forced through the diverter valve, the check valve, the air injection manifold, and into the engine. The fresh air blows on the exhaust valves.
During periods of deceleration, the diverter valve blocks air flow into the engine exhaust manifold. This prevents a possible backfire that could damage the exhaust system of the vehicle. When needed, the diverter valve will release excess pressure in the system.
The positive crankcase ventilation system uses manifold vacuum to purge the crankcase blow-by fumes. The fumes are then aspirated back into the engine where they are reburned.
If the hose is tapped into the carburetor base, it will be in a location that is between the throttle valves and the intake manifold so that it will receive manifold vacuum.
An inlet breather is installed on the crankcase in a location that is well above the level of the engine oil. The inlet breather also is located strategically to ensure complete purging of the crankcase fresh air. The areas of the crankcase where the vacuum hose and inlet breather are tapped have baffles to keep motor oil from leaving the crankcase.
A flow control valve is installed in the line that connects the crankcase to the manifold. It is called a positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve (fig. 4-52) and serves to avoid the air-fuel mixture by doing the following:
Any periods of large throttle opening will be accompanied by heavy engine loads. Crankcase blow- by will be at its maximum during heavy engine loads. The PCV valve will react to the small amount of manifold vacuum that also is present during heavy engine loading by opening fully through the force of its control valve spring. In this way, the system provides maximum effectiveness during maximum blow-by periods.
Any period of small throttle opening will be accompanied by small engine loads, high manifold vacuum, and a minimum amount of crankcase blow-by. During these periods, the high manifold vacuum will pull the PCV valve to its position of minimum opening. This is important to prevent an excessively lean air-fuel mixture.
In the event of engine backfire (flame traveling back through the intake manifold), the reverse pressure will push the rear shoulder of the control valve againstContinue Reading