A vacuum power jet valve (fig. 4-28), also known as an economizer, performs the same function as a metering rod; it provides a variable high-speed fuel mixture. A power jet valve consists of a fuel valve, a vacuum diaphragm, and a spring. The spring holds the power valve in the normally OPEN position. A vacuum passage runs to the power valve diaphragm. When the power valve is open, it serves as an extra jet that feeds fuel into the high-speed system.
When the engine is cruising at normal highway speeds, engine intake manifold vacuum is high. This vacuum acts on the power valve diaphragm and pulls the fuel valve closed. No additional fuel is added to the metering system under normal conditions; however, when the throttle plate is swung open for passing or climbing a hill, engine vacuum drops. The spring in the power valve can push the fuel valve open. Fuel flows through the power valve and into the main metering system, adding more fuel for more engine power.
When the engine is cold, the fuel tends to condense into large drops in the manifold, rather than vaporizing. By supplying a richer mixture (8:1 to 9:1), there will be enough vapor to assure complete combustion. The carburetor is fitted with a choke system to provide this richer mixture. The choke system provides a very rich mixture to start the engine and to make the mixture less rich gradually, as the engine reaches operating temperature. The two types of choke systems are the manual and automatic:
The manual choke system (fig. 4-29) was once the most popular way of controlling the choke plate; however, because of emissions regulations the possible danger when used with catalytic converters and technological advances in automatic choke systems, manual chokes are not often used today. In the manual choke system, the choke plate is operated by a flexible cable that extends into the operator's compartment. As the control is pulled out, the choke plate will be closed, so the engine can be started. As the control is pushed back in, the position of the choke plate is adjusted to provide the proper mixture. The following are two features that are incorporated into the manual choke to reduce the possibility of the engine flooding by automatically admitting air into the engine.
A spring-loaded poppet valve (fig. 4-30) that is automatically pulled open by the force of the engine intake strokes.
An off-center choke valve (fig. 4-31) that creates a pressure differential between the two sides of the choke plate when it is subjected to engine intake, causing it to be pulled open against the force of spring loaded linkage.
Figure 4-28. - Vacuum power jet.Continue Reading