and maintained at the inlet to the injectors. The "T" refers to the fact that the actual "time" available for the fuel to flow into the injector assembly (cup) is determined by the engine speed as a function of the engine camshaft and injection train components.
The air-fuel control (AFC) is an acceleration exhaust smoke control device built internally into the pump body. The AFC unit is designed to restrict fuel flow in direct proportion to the air intake manifold pressure of the engine during acceleration, under load, and during lug-down conditions.
Within the pump assembly a fuel pump bypass button of varying sizes can be installed to control the maximum fuel delivery pressure of the gear-type pump before it opens and bypasses fuel back to the inlet side of the pump. In this way the horsepower setting of the engine can be altered fairly easily. The major functions of the PTG-AFC fuel pump assembly are as follows:
1. To pull and transfer fuel from the tank and filter
2. To develop sufficient fuel pressure to the fuel rail (common fuel passage) to all of the injectors
3. To provide engine idle speed control (governing)
4. To limit the maximum no-load and full-load speed of the engine (governing)
5. To allow the operator to control the throttle position and therefore the power output of the engine
6. To control exhaust smoke emissions to EPA specifications under all operating conditions
7. To allow shutdown of the engine when desired
A major feature of the PT pump system is that there is no need to time the pump to the engine. The pump is designed simply to generate and supply a given flow rate at a specified pressure setting to the rail to all injectors. The injectors themselves are timed to ensure that the start of injection will occur at the right time for each cylinder.
The basic flow of fuel into and through the PT pump assembly will vary slightly depending on the actual model. A simplified fuel flow is as follows:
As the operator cranks the engine, fuel is drawn from the fuel tank by the gear pump through the fuel supply line to the primary filter. This filter is normally a filter/water separator.
The filter fuel then flows through a small filter screen that is located within the PT pump assembly, and then flows down into the internal governor sleeve.
The position of the governor plunger determines the fuel flow through various governor plunger ports.
The position of the mechanically operated throttle determines the amount of fuel that can flow through the throttle shaft.
Fuel from the throttle shaft is then directed to the AFC needle valve.
The position of the AFC control plunger within the AFC barrel determines how much throttle fuel can flow into and through the AFC unit and on to the engine fuel rail, which feeds the fuel rail.
The AFC plunger position is determined by the amount of turbocharger boost pressure in the intake manifold, which is piped through the air passage from the intake manifold to the AFC unit. At engine start-up, the boost pressure is very low; therefore, flow is limited. Fuel under pressure flows through the electric solenoid valve, which is energized by power from the ignition switch. This fuel then flows through the fuel rail pressure line and into the injectors.
A percentage of the fuel from both the PT pump and the injectors is routed back to the fuel tank in order to carry away some of the heat that was picked up cooling and lubricating the internal components of the pump and the injectors.
INJECTORS. - A PT injector is provided at each engine cylinder to spray the fuel into the combustion chambers. PT injectors are of the unit type and are operated mechanically by a plunger return spring and a rocker arm mechanism operating off the camshaft. There are four phases of injector operation, which are as follows:Continue Reading