The radiator shroud ensures that the fan pulls air through the radiator. It fastens to the rear of the radiator and surrounds the area around the fan. When the fan is spinning, the shroud keeps air from circulating between the back of the radiator and the front of the fan. As a result, a large volume of air flows through the radiator core.
The water passages in the cylinder block and cylinder head form the engine waterjacket (fig. 64). In the cylinder block, the water jacket completely surrounds all cylinders along their full length. Within the jacket, narrow passages are provided between the cylinders for coolant circulation around them. In addition, water passages are provided around the valve seats and other hot parts of the cylinder block In the cylinder head, the water jacket covers the combustion chambers at the top of the cylinders and contains passages around the valve seats when the valves are located in the head.
The passages of the water jacket are designed to control circulation of coolant and provide proper cooling throughout the engine. The pump forces coolant directly from the lower radiator tank connection into the forward portion of the cylinder block. This type of circulation would, obviously, cool the number one cylinder first; causing the rear cylinder to accept coolant progressively heated by the cylinders ahead. To prevent this condition, the L-head block is equipped with a coolant distribution tube that extends from front to rear of the block, having holes adjacent to (and directed at) the hottest parts of each cylinder. I-head engines are equipped with ferrule type coolant directors that direct a jet of coolant toward the exhaust valve seats.
Automatic control of the temperature of the engine is necessary for efficient engine performance and economical operation. If the engine is allowed to operate at a low temperature, sludge buildup and excessive fuel consumption will occur. On the other hand, overheating the engine or operating it above normal temperature will result in burnt valves and faulty lubrication. The latter causes early engine failure.
The thermostat senses engine temperature and controls coolant flow through the radiator. It allows coolant to circulate freely only withinthe blockuntil the desired temperature is reached. This action shortens the warm-up period. The thermostat normally fits under the thermostat housing between the engine and the end of the upper radiator hose. The pellet-type thermostat that is used in modern pressurized cooling systems incorporates the piston and spring principle (fig. 6-11). The thermostat consists of a valve that is operated by a piston or a steel pin that fits into a small case, containing a copper impregnated wax pellet. A spring holds the piston and valve in a normally closed position. When the thermostat is heated, the pellet expands and pushes the valve open. As the pellet and thermostat cools, spring tension overcomes pellet expansion and the valve closes.
Thermostats are designed to open at specific temperatures. This is known as thermostat rating. Normal ratings are between 180F and 195F for automotive applications and between 170F and 203F for heavy-duty applications. Thermostats will begin to open at their rated temperature and are fully open about 20F higher, For example, a thermostat with a rating of 195F starts to open at that temperature and is fully open at about 215F.
Most engines have a small coolant bypass passage that permits some coolant to circulate within the cylinder block and head when the engine is cold and the thermostat is closed. This provides equal warming of the cylinders and prevents hot spots. When the engine warms up, the bypass must close or become restricted. Otherwise, the coolant would continue to circulate within the engine and too little would return to the radiator for cooling.
The bypass passage may be an internal passage or an external bypass hose. The bypass hose connects the cylinder block or head to the water pump. There are two internal bypass systems that can be used on an engine.
One internal bypass system uses a small, spring- loaded valve located in the back of the water pump. The valve is forced open by coolant pressure from the pump when the thermostat is closed. As the thermostat opens, the coolant pressure drops within the engine and the bypass valve closes.Continue Reading