REDUCING VALVEA spring-loaded or lever-
loaded valve similar to a safety valve, designed
to maintain a lower-end constant pressure
beyond the valve.
REVERSE OSMOSISA process whereby a
solution flows through a semipermeable
membrane into an area of lower solute
ROUGHING INThe installation of all parts of a
plumbing system; completed before
installation of fixtures.
ROWPUReverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit.
A mobile, lightweight unit capable of being air
lifted to a deployment site.
SINGLE-STAGE PUMPA pump having one
device for imparting moving force upon a
SODIUM CARBONATENa2CO3, salt of carbonic
acid, strongly basic (alkaline). Used in water
softening and balancing water pH.
SODIUM HYDROXIDE(Caustic Soda) NaOH, a
strong base (alkaline), white powder used to
balance pH in water and absorb chlorine.
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITENaOCl, a salt usually
furnished in solution, used for disinfection of
SPECIFICATIONSStatements that specify types
and quality of materials and installation
STRUCTURAL PLANSAll structural members of
the building, including foundation, details and
sections, walls, columns and beam sections, or
SUCTION HEADTotal pressure of the liquid
entering the pump.
SUPERVISION To oversee or monitor in order to
direct, as in employees.
SURFACE WATERWater in exposed streams,
rivers, lakes, and ponds.
TOTAL DISCHARGE HEADThe difference
between pump suction head and the discharge
TURBIDITY Cloudiness in water caused by
UNLOADERSSystem for removing all but friction
loads from a compressor.
VALVEA device for regulating, stopping, or starting
flow in a system, and for controlling direction
VALVE BOXA pipe over a valve stem or wheel,
capped to exclude dirt that might interfere with
valve operation but permits access to the valve
stem for opening or closing purposes.
VENTA piping system that prevents siphonage of
the trap seal by equalizing the pressure on the
outlet side of a trap with the inlet side.
YARNING IRONA plumbing tool used to peak
oakum into a cast-iron hub and spigot lead
CHEMICALS USED IN WATER
ALUMINUM HYDROXIDEAlOH, reagent, used
to decolorize water samples when performing
chloride tests on water.
ALUMINUM SULFATE(Alum), Al3(SO4)3, a
white salt, a coagulant, used to flocculate
dissolved solids in a weak acid water
AMMONIANH3, an alkaline colorless gas, used in
solution to detect leaks in chlorine equipment
BARIUM CHLORIDEBaCl2, reagent, used to test
for sulfates in water.
granular white powder used to disinfect water.
CARBON DIOXIDECO2, a liquid, is used to lower
pH of softened and settled potable water.
CHLORINECl2, a natural chemical element (Cl). A
powerful disinfectant, used extensively in
water treatment. As a gas, its color is greenish
yellow, and it is 2 1/2 times heavier than air. As
a liquid, its color is amber, and it is about 1 1/2
times heavier than water. It is an oxidizer and is
toxic to all organisms and corrosive (in the
presence of water) to most metals.
used in solution with Sodium Ethylene to detect
minerals which cause hardness in water.
FERRIC CHLORIDEFeCl3, a dark salt that
hydrates to a yellow-orange form. A coagulant,
used to flocculate dissolved solids in a strong
acid water environment.