Figure 3-12.Cast-iron soil pipe closet bends.
past an obstruction, such as a part of the building. The
1/8 bend offset gives a smoother transition than the
regular one. Fittings for no-hub cast-iron pipe are
identical to the others, except there are no hubs.
JOINING.Various methods are used in joining
pipe. This means that you must know the procedure to
make various types of joints required for the kind of
pipe to be joined. Lead and oakum joints, oakum and
lead-wool joints, compression joints, and no-hub
joints are means for connecting pipes. Figure 3-14
shows these types of joints; however, if oakum is not
available, cotton braid or jute can be used as a
substitute. Oakum is made of hemp or jute fibers,
impregnated with a bituminous compound and loosely
twisted or spun into rope or yarn.
In making caulked joints, you need various types
of equipment. Because of the importance of this
equipment, the common types of caulking equipment
and safety procedures to be observed when making
caulked joints are discussed.
Figure 3-14.Various joints used to connect CISP and
Equipment frequently used in making caulked
joints in cast-iron soil pipe includes the melting
furnace, melting pot, and plumbers ladle. These
components are shown in figure 3-15. The melting
furnace is a portable gas-burning furnace used to melt
lead. The melting pot is made of cast iron and contains
the lead while it is being melted on the furnace. The
ladle, also made of cast iron, is used to spoon up the
molten lead and carry it to the joint to be poured.
Several types of melting furnaces are available.
Follow the manufacturers instructions when you are
operating a particular type. The general procedure
below is for operating a MAPP-gas burning melting