Pipe should always be blocked to prevent it from
rolling. Where practical, store pipe on specially
When lifting heavy pieces of pipe, bend your knees,
keep your back line as vertical as possible, and hold the
load close to your body; straighten your knees and pull
the load up directly over your feet. Lift with your legs, not
with your back. Pipe should be carried with the forward
end up to clear the heads of other people nearby. When
pipe is transported on a vehicle, a red warning flag should
be placed on the projecting ends.
When the crew is carrying a long and heavy pipe,
each member should try to work as a team while
observing the following precautions:
1. Each member of the crew should understand the
signals for lifting and lowering.
2. Members should ensure that their feet are in the
3. When needing to use either tongs or a carrying
bar with a U-shape bend to fit the pipe. When the crew is
carrying a length of pipe at shoulder or waist level, each
member should carry it on the same side.
4. Take a firm grip on the lifting bar or tongs.
5. Lift the pipe when the supervisor or co-worker
gives the signal. All members of the crew should lift and
6. Carry the pipe without sudden starts or stops;
move slowly and place your feet firmly.
7. Stop at the appointed place and wait for the
supervisors or co-workers signal to lower the pipe.
8. Lower the pipe carefully, bending at the knees
as in lifting, and lower slowly along with the other
members of your crew.
Use caution in handling THREADED pipe. The
threads are always sharp and cut flesh easily. Do NOT
put your hands inside a pipe.
When removing pipe, work from the top end of the
pile as much as possible. Pipe larger than 2 inches in
diameter should be handled by means of a hardwood
pipe stick. Use block and tackle, chain falls, or other
lifting devices where appropriate, when handling
heavy pipes and fittings.
Maintenance operations on distribution systems
may often involve excavation. Some precautions in
making excavations are as follows:
Wear a protective hat when working in a trench.
Keep a safe distance from other workers to avoid
striking them with tools.
Do not jump into a trench: but sit on the shoulder
and slide in if the trench is shallow. Use ladders where
required; for example, a trench that is 5 feet or more in
depth. Before climbing out of a trench, look in all
directions for traffic danger.
Remove earth and other material to avoid
overhanging banks. Do not go under an overhanging
bank and, when working near one, exercise caution. To
remove an overhanging bank, work from one side to the
center, always facing the point of danger. Where
necessary, shore trench walls.
When undercutting, provide adequate bracing
and restrict the public from braced areas.
Where practical, place excavated material at
least 2 feet away from the edge of the excavation;
otherwise, provide bracing.
Keep tools, working material, and loose objects
away from the shoulder of the trench.
Q25. What must you do before going down into a
Q24. When threading or cutting pipe, you should
always wear what personal protective
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Identify types of
gauges and methods for adjusting, testing, and
Gauges are delicate instruments and require care
and attention. They are most important in the safe
operation of boilers, air-conditioning and refrigeration
systems, or compressed-air systems; they tell you what
you need to know about water, heat, and pressure
conditions, and eliminate guesswork.
Proper care of gauges should include the
1. Keep the dials and face clean.