pressure has reached 20 percent above the set pressure, then the valve opens completely. Pressure-relief valves are installed on low-pressure systems fed through pressure-reducing valves from high-pressure supplies to ensure against damage if the pressure- reducing valves fail to operate. Pressure-relief valves are also used on pump headers, discharging into large supply mains to relieve the high-surge pressure that builds up between the time a pump is started and the time required for water in the main to reach full velocity. Relief valves are essentially pressure- reducing valves in which the control mechanism responds to pressure on the inlet, rather than the outlet, end.
Hydraulic control valves are used in many sprinkler systems. On some stations, they are installed in the sections of fire main that supply water to the magazine sprinkling system. This type of valve may be operated from one or more remote control stations by a hydraulic control system.
The hydraulic control valve shown in figure 4-10 is a piston-operated globe valve. It is normally held in the CLOSED position by both a spring force and by the fire-main pressure acting against the disk. When hydraulic pressure is admitted to the underside of the piston, a force is created that overcomes both the spring tension and the fire-main pressure, thereby causing the valve to open.
When hydraulic pressure is released from under the piston, the spring acts to force the hydraulic fluid out of the cylinder and back to the remote control station, thus closing the valve.
A ratchet lever is fitted to the valve so in an emergency, the valve can be opened by hand. After the valve has been opened by hand, you should first restore the stem to its normal CLOSED position with the ratchet lever. Then, line up the hydraulic system from a remote control station, so the hydraulic fluid in the valve cylinder can return to the storage tank at the control station. The full force of the closing spring acts to seat the disk, thereby closing the valve.
The valve shown in figure 4-10 is equipped with a test casting in the body of the valve. The bottom cover can be removed so you can check the valve for leakage.
Figure 4-10. - Hydraulic control valve.
Periodic maintenance is the best way to extend the service life of valves and fittings. As soon as you see a leak, check to see what is causing it; then apply the proper remedy. This remedy may be as simple as tightening a packing gland nut. A leaking flange joint may need only to have the bolts tightened or to have a new gasket inserted. Dirt and scale, if allowed to collect, can cause leakage. Loose hangers permit sections of a line to sag. The weight of the pipe and the fluid in these sagging sections may strain joints to the point of leakage.
Whenever you intend to install a valve, make sure you know its function. In other words, is it supposed to prevent backflow, start flow, stop flow, regulateContinue Reading