alternating-current circuit to the pipe being thawed. To reduce hazards, have a competent Construction Electrician set and connect transformers, make the connections, and assist in the thawing process. Where frequent thawing is necessary at different points, the transformers may be mounted on a trailer for ready use.
Some precautions in electrical thawing are given below.
Avoid a higher current than listed in table 5-3. When in doubt, use low current for a longer period.
Select contact points on the pipe as close as possible to the frozen section.
Assure that contact points are free of rust, grease, or scale.
Remove meters, electrical ground connections, and couplings to buildings with plumbing in the pipeline to be thawed.
If there are gaskets or other insulation at pipe joints, thaw the pipe in sections between such joints, or use copper jumpers to close the circuit across insulated points.
Steam thawing of frozen systems is slower than electrical thawing and should be used only when insulating materials in pipes (plastic, transite, and wood), pipe joints, or couplings make the use of electricity impractical. In steam thawing, a hose connected to a boiler is inserted through a disconnected fitting and gradually advanced as the steam melts the ice.
A change of water pressure can cause much discomfort to persons using the plumbing system. The mixture of hot and cold water from a shower can suddenly vary in temperature or rate of flow when water is turned on at another outlet. Failure to remedy this condition could injure somebody, especially if the temperature is scalding.
When a switch in pressure and water flow occurs often, look at the water pipes. Check the pipes to see if they are the proper size in diameter for their length and height as originally installed. Also look for liming and corrosion inside the pipes. Enough liming and corrosion can reduce the diameter of the pipe, causing low pressure and slow water flow.
Sometimes the trouble occurs after more fixtures have been installed in the system. When this happens, the piping is probably overloaded because of the extra fixtures. Pressure and water flow may also change when there is too much friction in the pipe, too many fittings, and the piping changes in direction.
If the pressure at showers changes only when other outlets are open, you can usually correct the trouble by installing automatic mixing valves. The only answer to an increase in the water flow from pipes that are too small is to replace them with larger pipes.
Q9. What is the most common repair performed on piping systems due to frozen pipes?
Q10. A 400-foot run of 4-inch cast-iron pipe requires approximately how many amperes of electricity for effective thawing if frozen??
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize types of pipe and tank leaks and methods for repair.
When a leak develops at a threaded joint of pipe, one of the most likely suspects is a fractured or ruptured pipe. Fractures often occur at the end of a length of pipe because of strain imposed by vibration of water hammer. It occurs at the end of the pipe because the wall thickness is decreased and weakened by threading. The risk of fracture becomes even greater when the threads are not cut true. In cold climates, freezing sometimes causes pipes to rupture, in which case replacement becomes necessary. A loose or cracked fitting can also cause leakage at the threaded joint of a pipe. These and other common failures resulting in pipe leakage make it important for you to determine the exact location and cause of failure before commencing any repairs to the piping.
Find and repair leaks in the water piping system as quickly as possible to prevent serious damage to footings, walls, floors, plaster, and other parts of the structure, and to conserve water. Find leaks systematically by inspecting exposed piping and valves and by examining walls, floors, and ceilings around concealed piping. You should also check gauges, meters, and other water flow recordingContinue Reading