Q4. Does a water closet, equipped with a flushometer valve, require more or less water per flush than one equipped with a flush tank?
Q5. What are the two types of urinals most commonly used by Utilitiesman?
Q6. A service sink is referred to by a more common name. What is it?
Q7. What type of faucet is used for exterior connections?
Q8. What instruction should be used to determine riser height if the user does not indicate a preference?
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize procedures for making plumbing repairs and testing; recognize methods of operation for fixture hardware and safety.
This portion of the chapter will deal with some of the more common plumbing repairs that will be necessary from time to time to keep plumbing systems operating properly. Proper repairs and maintenance techniques save money by extending the life of plumbing systems. For example, one water faucet that is leaking one drop of water each second wastes about 2,300 gallons of water per year.
Water distribution piping at one time or another will require repair on a leak or a break in the line. The following are problems you may have during a waterline break:
The water supply for fire protection is reduced or does not exist.
Escaping water under pressure undermines structures, damages foundations, destroys landscaping, or causes a serious erosion problem.
A broken pipe causes a health hazard because the distribution system can become contaminated by external sources.
The water supply for normal domestic or industrial use can be completely cut off.
To ensure proper repair of a water break, keep red line prints on hand that show the water distribution lines, existing conditions, and locations. Ensure to red line your set of prints every time you make a repair or line change. Additionally, notify engineering of your line repair or line change, and they will update the master set of base prints.
At some activities, electronic devices are available for subsurface survey and pipe location work. Sometimes you may have to find points of interconnection, pipe diameters, and the condition of exterior surfaces or coatings. For future use, make notes on the maintenance prints to show the general condition of the system. Use a symbol that stands out to show the approximate age of the installation or its parts. Prints should be complete and up-to-date. In maintenance or repair, these prints help in planning maintenance. Many times, they offer clues to the most probable location and probable cause of trouble. Now and then, the system should be flushed through hydrants and blowoffs to remove scale and accumulation in pipes and fittings. When performing this operation, start at the hydrants or blowoffs nearest the source of supply to conserve water and to stir up less of the distribution system. Each point should be flushed until the water comes out reasonably clear. All valves should be in their normal operating positions before you go on to the next point. Flushing dead ends is vital. When flushing does not induce enough velocity to scour the mains clean, night flush them with a large discharge. Night operation lessens work disruption caused by water shutoff or decreased water pressure.
Since water main breaks must be repaired as fast as possible, personnel must be trained and repair plans made in advance. The following procedures are essential:
1. Post the telephone numbers of the fire department and key personnel and have alternate personnel available in case members of the regular repair crew cannot be reached at the time of a break. Notify the public works officer at the time the break is reported.
2. Always keep the following items readily available: valve keys, hand tools, digging tools, pavement breakers, trench shoring, a portable centrifugal or diaphragm pump, floodlights, an emergency chlorinator, and calcium hypochlorite powder.
3. Maintain enough pipe repair materials and supplies. As a temporary measure, wooden plugs can be 5-20Continue Reading