A service sink is referred to by a more common
name. What is it?
What instruction should be used to determine
riser height if the user does not indicate a
Does a water closet, equipped with a
flushometer valve, require more or less water
per flush than one equipped with a flush tank?
What are the two types of urinals most commonly
used by Utilitiesman?
What type of faucet is used for exterior
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize
procedures for making plumbing repairs and
testing; recognize methods of operation for
fixture hardware and safety.
This portion of the chapter will deal with some of
the more common plumbing repairs that will be
necessary from time to time to keep plumbing systems
operating properly. Proper repairs and maintenance
techniques save money by extending the life of
plumbing systems. For example, one water faucet that
is leaking one drop of water each second wastes about
2,300 gallons of water per year.
Water distribution piping at one time or another
will require repair on a leak or a break in the line. The
following are problems you may have during a
The water supply for fire protection is reduced
or does not exist.
Escaping water under pressure undermines
structures, damages foundations, destroys landscaping,
or causes a serious erosion problem.
A broken pipe causes a health hazard because
the distribution system can become contaminated by
The water supply for normal domestic or
industrial use can be completely cut off.
To ensure proper repair of a water break, keep red
line prints on hand that show the water distribution
lines, existing conditions, and locations. Ensure to red
line your set of prints every time you make a repair or
line change. Additionally, notify engineering of your
line repair or line change, and they will update the
master set of base prints.
At some activities, electronic devices are available
for subsurface survey and pipe location work.
Sometimes you may have to find points of
interconnection, pipe diameters, and the condition of
exterior surfaces or coatings. For future use, make
notes on the maintenance prints to show the general
condition of the system. Use a symbol that stands out to
show the approximate age of the installation or its
parts. Prints should be complete and up-to-date. In
maintenance or repair, these prints help in planning
maintenance. Many times, they offer clues to the most
probable location and probable cause of trouble. Now
and then, the system should be flushed through
hydrants and blowoffs to remove scale and
accumulation in pipes and fittings. When performing
this operation, start at the hydrants or blowoffs nearest
the source of supply to conserve water and to stir up
less of the distribution system. Each point should be
flushed until the water comes out reasonably clear. All
valves should be in their normal operating positions
before you go on to the next point. Flushing dead ends
is vital. When flushing does not induce enough
velocity to scour the mains clean, night flush them with
a large discharge. Night operation lessens work
disruption caused by water shutoff or decreased water
Since water main breaks must be repaired as fast as
possible, personnel must be trained and repair plans
made in advance. The following procedures are
1. Post the telephone numbers of the fire
department and key personnel and have alternate
personnel available in case members of the regular
repair crew cannot be reached at the time of a break.
Notify the public works officer at the time the break is
2. Always keep the following items readily
available: valve keys, hand tools, digging tools,
pavement breakers, trench shoring, a portable
centrifugal or diaphragm pump, floodlights, an
emergency chlorinator, and calcium hypochlorite
3. Maintain enough pipe repair materials and
supplies. As a temporary measure, wooden plugs can be