Figure 5-52.Turbine-driven tools.
Figure 5-53.-Roots growing into sewer pipe.
requires a handful of copper sulfate crystals. If the flow
is greater than 10 gallons per minute, apply more
copper sulfate or treat the line with repeated
applications. If the chemical fails to remove the roots,
use power-driven equipment.
Sewer breaks and obstructions must be repaired at
once. Sewers under roadways, crushed by settling,
must be encased in concrete or sleeved with steel
piping. In difficult situations get technical assistance
from higher authority.
Bypassing the sewage flow is usually required
during repairs. The usual method is by blocking the
upper manhole outlet with sand bags or an expandable
rubber test plug, using portable pumps to discharge the
sewage to a lower manhole through a fire hose or a
Excavations over 5 feet must be shored and ladders
provided under safety requirements for excavation,
building, and construction. Adequate guards and
warning signs must be placed around the excavations
in roadways. Details on the requirements mentioned
are found in EM 385-1-1, Safety and Health
What is the first step to correct a problem in a
You should use what size fire hose to do most
sewer flushing jobs?
Accumulated sand and grit deposits should be
removed at what point in the sewer system?
CLEARING STOPPAGES IN FIXTURES
LEARNING OBJECTIVE: Recognize
different types of equipment and methods for
clearing fixture stoppages.
Stoppages in fixtures are usually caused by
materials lodged in the drain, trap, or waste line.
Obstructions often can be removed by manually
operated devices, chemicals, or both.
The method depends upon the seriousness and
nature of the stoppage. The obstruction should be
entirely removed and not merely moved from one
place to another in the line. After the stoppage has been
relieved, pour boiling water into the fixture to ensure
complete clearance. Some of the methods used in
clearing stoppages in fixtures are explained below.
When using a snake or sewer tape, keep track of
the length of tape in the pipe, so you can determine the
break or stoppage location. Also, with plastic pipe,
exercise care not to use sharp ends to-avoid cutting
through the wall of a pipe or fitting.
The FORCE CUP, or the PLUMBERS FRIEND,
is commonly used for clearing stoppages in service
sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, and water closets. One type
of force cup has a round, rubber suction cup, about 5
inches in diameter, fastened to a wooden handle, as
shown in view A, figure 5-54. When using the force
cup, partly fill the fixture with water. Now, place the
force cup over the drain opening and work the handle